June 4, 2020

English football clubs, 2019-20 season – After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map, with 134 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.

Filed under: >134 ENG clubs on map — admin @ 1:47 pm

English football clubs – Map: After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension / All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map with 133 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.

By Bill Turianski on 4 June 2020;

The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20 (average attendance from home domestic league matches, up to the seasons being suspended in mid-March 2020).
The attendance figures are final, because all remaining fixtures will be played behind closed doors. Or, in the case of the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th-levels, all remaining fixtures will not be played (as of 4 June, the 3rd level [League One] has not yet decided on whether to play the rest of the season or not).

Further below are league-by-league descriptions of restarts, or league-cancellations. (Note: Information on Restarts (or league-cancellations) can also be found at the top-centre of the map.)

Near the foot of this post is various info on the clubs on the map…Which clubs drew above 40-K. Which clubs drew above 20-K. Which clubs are new to the map, as compared to last season (King’s Lynn Town, Spennymoor Town, Wealdstone). And the breakdown of clubs on the map, by league-level.

2020 COVID-19 Pandemic in English football:
-On 13th March 2020, the Premier League season was suspended.
-The English Football League (2nd, 3rd & 4th divisions) was also suspended on 13 March.
-In the 7th level, the Isthmian Leagues and the Southern Leagues were also suspended on 13 March; and then the 7th-level Northern Premier League was suspended three days later, on 16 March.
-The National League (5th & 6th Levels) was last of the top 7 league-levels to suspend their seasons – on the 20th of March.

-On the 9th of April, the FA announced that the 2019-20 seasons would all be cancelled (‘expunged’) for non-League Steps 3-7 (ie, league levels 7 through 11). {See this: Coronavirus: All football below National League to end (} That meant all of the seasons had now been declared null and void for all leagues in the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th & 11th levels. No titles to be awarded, no promotions or relegations to be handed out: all of the 2019-20 seasons for Steps 3 through 7 (levels 7 through 11) would be stricken from the books. Perhaps the clubs that were dealt the cruelest blow by this were 7th-level/Northern Premier side South Shields [who are located just south of Newcastle], and 10th-level/Combined Counties Football League D-1 side Jersey Bulls [of the Channel Islands]. South Shields were 12 points clear on top of the Northern Premier League, with 9 games remaining, when the league was suspended {table including attendances, here}. Jersey Bulls had already clinched promotion to the 9th tier: they had won all 27 matches and were 20 points clear {table including attendances, here}. South Shields averaged 1,669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 432 per game. Jersey Bulls averaged 669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 42 per game. Neither will win promotion.

-On 22 April 2020, National League clubs (5th division and 6th level) voted to end the season, with promotion and relegation still ‘under careful consideration’.

-On 13 May, EFL League Championship clubs (2nd division) voted to continue with the season, with plans for players to return to training on 25 May, and the league to restart on 20 June (following, roughly, the same re-start schedule as the Premier League). Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).

-On 15 May 2020, EFL League Two (4th division) voted to end the season, with the final table being determined on a weighed points-per-game basis. The play-offs would be played as normal (behind closed doors). Thus, Swindon Town would be champions and would be promoted to the 3rd division, along with 2nd-place-finisher Crewe Alexandra, and 3rd-place finisher Plymouth Argyle. (Note: the weighted PPG switched the top two teams in the table, not that it really mattered too much, as both Swindon and Crewe won automatic promotion anyway.)

-On 28 May 2020, the Premier League announced it was set to Restart on 17 May, with a full slate set for the weekend of 20-21 June {see two paragraphs below}.

-That left just one division undecided…League One (3rd division). That decision will not come until after Tuesday 9 June. That is when English Football League clubs will meet, with the intention of approving the league’s new mechanism for ending a campaign early in the event of the COVID-19 pandemic ruling out the possibility of a normal conclusion. 51% of the League One clubs must approve any decision. The biggest problem with a 3rd-division-restart is that many third-tier clubs are on shaky financial footing right now, and playing out the rest of the season without ticket revenue could ruin many League One clubs.

Premier League: Project Restart.
Completion of the season to is begin on Wednesday 17 June, with 2 matches that were not played from previous rounds, then a full slate to be played on the weekend of 20-21 June. (The two Wednesday 17 June fixtures are Man City v Arsenal and Aston Villa v Sheffield Utd.) {See this from} The plan is to complete all 92 remaining fixtures by Sunday 26 June, with the FA Cup final to be played on Saturday 1 August. (UEFA has set a deadline of 2 August, for all leagues in Europe to finish). At some points in the restart, some teams will have to play as many as 3 games in a week {see this from}. All games are to be played behind closed doors. The games are to be played at the home-clubs’ venues, with the exception of several ties…‘Concerns over the possibility of fans gathering outside grounds have led the police to request the following games take place at neutral venues: Manchester City v Liverpool, Manchester City v Newcastle, Manchester United v Sheffield United, Newcastle v Liverpool and Everton v Liverpool. The police have also asked that this list includes any match that may see Liverpool win the title.’ {-Excerpt from What, when, where? Questions answered on Premier League’s return, by Paul MacInnes at on 29 May 2020).}

The games will be played every day starting with Saturday 20 June. Match times: Friday 8pm; Saturday 12.30pm, 3pm, 5.30pm, 8pm; Sunday 12pm, 2pm, 4.30pm, 5pm; Monday 8pm; Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 6pm, 8pm.

-4 June 2020: Premier League clubs agree to five substitutions and nine players on bench (by Guardian Sport and PA Media at

The map shows all clubs which were drawing above 1,000-per game, before play was suspended in mid-March 2020. Most leagues had completed between 70% and 80% of the season when play was suspended (I break down the percentages, league by league, below). In the Premier League, most teams had played 29 games (four teams had played 28 games) {2019-20 Premier League table}.

Below is a suspended-season summary of each league, in Levels 1 through 7. (Includes percentage of season competed, and league positions at mid-March season suspension with respect to titles, automatic promotions and relegation). (Note: The list below is repeated on the map, at the top-centre, just to the right of the main map, in a sidebar). (Also, TBD means To Be Determined.)

(1st Level) Premier League 2019-20: Season to Restart on Wednesday 17 June.
(20 teams / 38-game season; winner is English title-winner / 1st through 4th places qualify for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage.)
Most teams had played 29 games (four had played 28) {73% or 76% completed}.
Liverpool lead by 25 points (two wins short of clinching the title).
Currently in the qualification-zone for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage: Liverpool, Manchester City, Leicester, Chelsea.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Bournemouth, Aston Villa, Norwich.

(2nd Level) EFL Championship 2019-20: Season to Restart on Saturday 20 June. Then Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
All teams had played 37 games {80% completed}.
Currently in the Automatic Promotion places: Leeds in 1st place, 7 pts. clear of 3rd; West Brom in 2nd place, 6 pts. clear of 3rd.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Charlton, Luton Town, Barnsley.

(3rd Level) EFL League One 2019-20: All TBD: No decisions made yet; decision on season not to be made until after 9 June.
(23 teams / 44-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 34 and 36 games {77% to 81% completed}.
Automatic Promotion places: Coventry in 1st place, 7 pts. clear of 3rd; Rotherham in 2nd place, 1 pt. clear of 3rd.
Relegation Zone: Tranmere, Southend, Bolton.

(4th Level) EFL League Two 2019-20: Season has ended: On 15 May, clubs voted to end season with immediate effect, with the final table being determined on a weighed points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted teams listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation TBD.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd & 3rd place are Promoted*; bottom 2 are Relegated. *5th through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 36 and 37 games {78% to 80% completed}.
Automaticaly Promoted teams (3): Swindon Town (1st), 4 pts. clear of 4th place; Crewe (2nd), 4 pts. clear of 4th; Plymouth (3rd), 3 pts. clear.
Relegation Zone: Macclesfield, Stevenage.

(non-League/5th Level) National League 2019-20: Season has been terminated: On 22 April 2020, clubs voted to end the season, with promotion and relegation still ‘under careful consideration’.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 4 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.)
Teams had played between 35 and 39 games {76% to 85% completed}.
Automatic Promotion place: Barrow (1st) was 4 pts. clear of 2nd place, with 2 games-in-hand.
Relegation Zone: Ebbsfleet, Maidenhead, AFC Fylde, Chorley.

(non-League/6th Level) National Leagues North & South 2019-20: Season has been terminated: On 22 April 2020, clubs voted to end the season, with promotion and relegation still ‘under careful consideration’.
(Two separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place (in each league) in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 31 and 35 games {74% to 83% completed}.
Automatic Promotion place: NL-N: York (1st) was 2 pts. clear of 2nd, but King’s Lynn (2nd) had better Points Per Games, plus had 2 games in-hand {table, here}.
Automatic Promotion place: NL-S: Wealdstone (1st) was 3 pts. clear of 2nd place.
Relegation Zone: NL-N: Kettering Town, Blyth Spartans, Bradford (Park Avenue).
Relegation Zone: NL-S: Tonbridge Angels, Braintree Town, Hungerford Town.

(non-League/7th Level) Northern / Southern Central / Southern South / Isthmian Leagues 2019-20: Season has been cancelled (Expunged) [All four Level 7 leagues' 2019-20 seasons were declared null and void.].
(Four separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 5th places play in expanded inter-league format for 2 promotion-places total (between the 4 leagues) in the Play-offs.
All four Level 7 leagues’ seasons were cancelled (expunged).
(Teams had played between 26 and 35 games {62% to 83% completed}.
Automatic Promotion places: Northern: South Shields (1st) were 12 pts. clear. Southern Central: Peterborough Sports led on goal-diff, but Tamworth had 2 games-in-hand. Southern South: Truro City (1st) were 1 pt. clear w/ 2 games-in-hand. Isthmian: Worthing (1st) was 7 pts. clear. But no 7th-tier clubs will be promoted.
Relegation Zone: Northern: Matlock Town, Atherton Collieries, Stafford Rangers. Southern Central: St. Ives Town, Alvechurch, Redditch Utd. Southern South: Walton Casuals, Beaconsfield, Dorchester. Isthmian: Wingate & Finchley, Merstham, Brighlingsea. These clubs in the relegation zones got a big break, as no 7th-tier clubs will be relegated.

Aspects of the map page
The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20. (Data from approximately 70-to-80% of home domestic league matches [all the matches played up to the suspension of play in mid-March 2020].) Again, these attendance figures are final, because all remaining regular-season matches will be played behind closed doors.

(Note: in bold-17-to-36-point-type, on the map, are listed the 9 largest cities within England {all English cities with more than .6 million inhabitants, from: List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (}…Greater London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Nottingham, Sheffield, Bristol. Also, in 12-to-15-point-type, on the map, are listed the 83 Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. Also, in 14-point-all-cap-bold-type, are listed prominent British regional names such as: the East Midlands, the West Midlands, East Anglia, the West Country, and the Lake District; as well as North Wales and South Wales.)

Also, there is an inset-map for all the clubs from Greater London-plus-the-immediate surrounding area [Greater London (18 Clubs from Greater London + 3 from surrounding areas of the Home Counties).]

The expanded list on the right side of the map shows 7 things…
A) Attendance Rank.
B) 2019-20 Divisional status (League-Level; and league position when the seasons were suspended).
C) Home domestic league Average Attendance from 2019-20.
D) Seasons that the Club has played in the 1st division (there have been 121 seasons of English 1st division seasons [counting 2019-20]).
E) English titles won (with last title noted).
F) FA Cup titles won (with last Cup-win noted).
G) League Cup titles won (with last cup-win noted).

At the foot of the map-page are shown the crests of the top-50-drawing English-and-Welsh clubs, arranged L-R with their crests sized, to reflect their drawing-power. (The top 50 drawing clubs in the English league system in 2019-20 ended up being all the clubs which drew above 10.0 K per game.)

There were 9 clubs which drew above 40 thousand per game…
(In the previous season [2018-19], there were 8 clubs which drew above 40 K. The reason why there were 9 clubs drawing above 40 K in 2019-20 was that Aston Villa, who had just won promotion back to the Premier League, saw their attendance shoot up 5.6 K-per-game.)
(List below shows the 9 clubs that drew above 40-K-per-game in 2019-20 (with Numerical Change from 2018-19.)
-Manchester United, averaging 73.3 K per game (down -1.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Arsenal, 60.2 K (up +0.3 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-West Ham United, 59.8 K (up +1.5 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Tottenham Hotspur, 59.3 K (up +5.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Manchester City 54.2 K (up +0.08 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Liverpool, 53.1 K (up +0.16 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Newcastle United, 48.2 K (down -2.8 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Aston Villa, 41.6 K (up +5.6 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Chelsea, 40.5 K (up +0.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

And, in 2019-20, there were 32 clubs in the English league system which drew above 20.0 K per game. The clubs drawing above 20-K-per-game included the 9 highest-drawing clubs listed above, plus the 21 clubs listed below. Breakdown by division: 19 Premier League clubs (all except Bournemouth); 10 Championship clubs; 1 League One club (Sunderland).
-Everton (1), 39.1 K.
-Leeds United AFC (2), 35.3 K.
-Leicester City (1), 32.0 K.
-Wolverhampton Wanderers (1), 31.3 K.
-Sheffield United (1), 30.8 K.
-Brighton & Hove Albion (1), 30.3 K.
-Sunderland AFC (3), 30.1 K.
-Southampton (1), 29.6 K.
-Nottingham Forest (2), 27.7 K.
-Norwich City (1), 27.0 K.
-Derby County (2), 26.7 K.
-Crystal Palace (1), 25.0 K.
-West Bromwich Albion (2), 24.0 K.
-Sheffield Wednesday (2), 23.7 K.
-Stoke City (2), 22.8 K.
-Cardiff City (2), 22.8 K.
-Bristol City (2), 21.8 K.
-Huddersfield Town AFC (2), 21,7 K.
-Watford (1), 20.8 K.
-Birmingham City (2), 20.4 K.
-Burnley (1), 20.2 K.

There are 3 clubs on the map, who were not drawing above 1-K-per-game before 2019-20. {Here is my map from last season, 2018-19 English football clubs map/133 clubs}.
Those 3 clubs are:
∙King’s Lynn Town (of Norfolk), who drew 1.4 K, in the 6th-tier National League North. King’s Lynn Town are currently in 2nd place, 2 pts. behind York City, but King’s Lynn would be in 1st place, and in the automatic-promotion-place, using PPG {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on King’s Lynn Town}.
∙Spennymoor Town (of Durham), who drew 1.1 K, also in the 6th-tier National League North. Spennymoor Town are in their 3rd season ever of 6th-tier football. Spennymoor is located, by road, 26 miles (41 km) south of Newcastle. Five years ago, Spennymoor Town were drawing 542 per game, in the 7th-tier Northern Premier D1-North. After winning promotion to the 6th tier for 2017-18, Spennymoor drew in the 800s-per-game, finishing in 8th in 2017-18, then in 4th place last season. Currently they sit 6th, in the play-off places – but would be outside the play-off paces if PPG were to be used {table, here}.
∙Wealdstone (of north-west Greater London, situated in the former county of Middlesex). Wealdstone drew 1.0 K in the 6th-tier National League South. Wealdstone were a founding member of the Alliance Premier League (present-day 5th division/the National League), in 1979-80. Wealdstone have led the 2019-20 National League South since September (they currently lead Havant & Waterlooville by 2 pts.) {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on Wealdstone}.

The list goes to 1,000 per game (134 clubs), but I also included, on the list – and on the map – all clubs which drew in the 900s…of which there were only 3 clubs: Bomsgrove Sporting (7), Ebbsfleet United (5), Gateshead (6-N). So that made it 137 teams on the map. Here are all the clubs which just missed out being on the map: that is, all the clubs which drew in the 800s…5 clubs: Worthing (7), Chelmsford City (6-S), Slough Town (6-S), Blyth Spartans (6-N), Guernsey (8).

Here is the breakdown, by division (aka level), of…
All the clubs in the English football pyramid which drew over 1 K per game in 2018-19 (134 clubs).
1 – Premier League: all 20 clubs.

2 – EFL Championship: all 24 clubs.

3 – EFL League One: all 23 clubs.

4 – EFL League Two: all 24 clubs.

5 – [non-League] National League: 22 of the 24 clubs…The exceptions being Ebbsfleet United (who drew 979 per game), and Boreham Wood (who drew a club record 724 per game).

6 – [non-League] The 6th tier is comprised of 2 regional leagues: National League North & National League South. 18 of the 44 clubs in the 6th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (11 in NL-North, 7 in NL-South).
-York City (6-N), drawing 2,705 per game.
-Dulwich Hamlet (6-S), 2,183.
-Hereford (6-N), 2,049.
-Chester (6-N), 2,019.
-Maidstone United (6-S), 1,776.
-Darlington (6-N), 1,471.
-King’s Lynn Town (6-N), 1,417.
-Havant & Waterlooville (6-S), 1,390.
-Kidderminster Harriers (6-N), 1,364.
-Boston United (6-N), 1,304.
-Dartford (6-S), 1,182.
-Spennymoor Town (6-N), 1,182.
-AFC Telford United (6-N), 1,148.
-Altrincham (6-N), 1,139.
-Weymouth (6-S), 1,077.
-Bath City (6-S), 1,064.
-Wealdstone (6-S), 1,031.
-Southport (6-N), 1,006.

7 – [non-League] The 7th tier is comprised of 4 regional leagues: Northern Premier/Southern Central/Southern South/Isthmian Leagues. 3 of the 88 clubs in the 7th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (all 3 from the Northern Premier League).
The three 7th-level clubs which drew above 1 K per game were:
-South Shields (7-Northern Premier), 1,669.
-FC United of Manchester (7-Northern Premier), 1,668.
-Scarborough Athletic (7-Northern Premier), 1,001.

Final breakdown of the 134 clubs drawing over 1,00 per game in 2019-20: all 20 Premier League clubs; all 71 Football League clubs; 43 non-League clubs / 130 English clubs and 4 Welsh clubs.

Sources for map…
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of English Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Counties, by Nilfanion, at File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (
-Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
-List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (
-Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England (
-Local government in Wales/Principal areas of Wales (
Attendance figures… (2019-20 Average attendances from the 1st division through 4th division.) (2019-20 Average attendances of all non-League clubs on the map, ie from 5th division, 6th division, and 7th division.)
-League tables from
-Information on COVID-19 Pandemic on English football from several sources including theguardian/football,, 2019-20 Premier League (

May 27, 2020

Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map including COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball; with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list./+ Illustration for 2019 Korean Series: Doosan Bears sweep Kiwoom Heroes to win their 3rd KBO title in 5 years.

Filed under: Baseball,Korea: baseball — admin @ 7:26 am

Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list

By Bill Turianski on 27 May 2020;

-KBO teams…KBO League/ Teams (
-KBO official site/schedule, scores, standings; About KBO, etc. (in English, with Korean option)…
-KBO 리그의 공식 사이트
-The Korea Herald/baseball ([sports]/[baseball]).

-No MLB? Korean baseball is in full swing—here’s what you need to know, from KBO cheerleaders to bat-flipping (by Tom Huddlseston at on May 25 2020).

KBO League map-page…
The map-page includes a COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball. The text for the timeline is repeated two paragraphs below. The map-page features a location-map of the 10 KBO League teams, including an inset-map of Greater Seoul aka Seoul Capital Area (there are 5 KBO League teams in Seoul Capital Area, including 3 teams in Seoul city-proper (aka Seoul Special City). For each team, there is a Circular-cap-logo that is sized to reflect 2019 average attendance…the larger the circular-cap-logo, the higher the team’s attendance. 2016 Korea Post stamps are shown for each team. These stamps each feature the team’s mascot. Some of the stamps have been updated to show recently-changed new cap logos and color-changes (LG Twins, Lotte Giants, Kia Tigers, Kiwoom Heroes). There are also 3 charts: One chart shows the 9 largest cities in South Korea (all cities with more than one million in their Metropolitan Areas). Another chart shows 2019 attendance for the 10 KBO League teams. Attendance, overall was down for the second-straight season in the KBO League, and last year league-wide attendance fell an alarming 9.8% {see the section on 2019 KBO attendance, which is about halfway further down this post}. The third chart show the full Titles list for the KBO League (the KBO League’s first season was in 1982).

Finally, there is a section at the far right-hand side of the map-page which has Team Profile Boxes for the 10 KBO League teams. In the profile boxes there are shown or listed several things…Cap-logo. Primary logo. Season team was established. Venue-location(s) & City-location(s). [Note: 3 KBO League teams have a secondary venue, in a neighboring city, where they play a few home games each season (Lotte Giants, Samsung Lions, Hanwha Eagles). Those secondary locations are also shown on the map.] Team Owner with owner’s business, and company logo. Titles won by team, with last title listed, along with the number of times the team has finished as Runners-up. Primary mascot’s logo.

South Korea: 2020 KBO League: COVID-19 Timeline in Korean Baseball

December 2019: 2020 KBO League season schedule was released: 28th of March was scheduled for opening day.

10 March 2020: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) cancelled all exhibition games, and delayed the start of the 2020 KBO League season indefinitely.

19 April 2020: New COVID-19 cases, per day, in all of South Korea, dropped to single-digits.

21 April 2020: Preseason games begin for restart.

5 May 2020: 2020 KBO League begins. Full 144-game season is scheduled, but in a more compressed time-frame, meaning more doubleheaders, less off-days, and no All-Star break. The season is projected to end on the 2nd of November. Post-season to end no later than 25 November.

The stadiums will be empty except for players, staff, umpires and some media. Masks and latex gloves must be worn by base coaches and umpires on the field; teams’ training staff must wear masks in the dugouts. Players wear masks in the dugout, but not on the field. There can be small cheerleading squads. Spitting is not allowed.

Will there be fans in the stadiums? Yonhap news agency reported that the KBO has plans to gradually open the stadiums, depending on the progress of the pandemic.

Here are articles which helped me put together the timeline…
-2020 KBO League season (
-S. Korean baseball season pushed further back to late April (by Yonhap news agency at on 24 March 2020).
-Inside look at Korean baseball restart that offers hope for MLB (by Joel Sherman at[MLB] on 20 April 2020).
-S. Korean baseball regular season to begin May 5 (by Yonhap news agency at on 21 April 2020).
The link below is recommended…
-The Korean Baseball Organization is back from the coronavirus shutdown… (by Ryan Divish at on 8 May 2020).

Demographics of South Korea
The population of South Korea is around 51.7 million {source: 2019 estimate, here at South Korea en.wikipedia page}. This puts South Korea as the 27th-most-populous nation on Earth. South Korea is very small, though: it is the 109th-largest country (at 100,210 km-sq or 66,690 mi-sq). That makes South Korea slightly smaller than Iceland, and slightly larger than Hungary. The largest city in South Korea (by far) is, of course, Seoul…which is absolutely gigantic, and has a metro-area population that is fifth-largest on the planet. Seoul has a special-city population of around 10.1 million, and metro-area population of around 25.5 million ! Only Tokyo, Japan (at ~37.2 million), Shanghai, Jakarta, and Delhi have larger metro-area populations than does Seoul. {Source.} Basically, half of the population of South Korea resides in Seoul’s metropolitan area. South Korea has about the 29th-highest adjusted-GDP in the world [International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates] {see this, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita).

KBO League est. 1982; 10 teams. Season: 144 games/5-team playoffs w/reg-season-winner getting bye to the 5-game Korean Series
Pro major-league baseball in South Korea began in 1982, with the institution of the KBO League as a 6-team league. A minor league was established eight years later in 1990 – the KBO Futures League. In 1986, the KBO League expanded to include a seventh team.

In the first decade of its existence, the KBO League as a whole was only drawing in the 5 to 7 K range. By 1991, the KBO League had 8 teams. In 1995, cumulative attendance for the season finally topped 10 K per game, boosted by the exciting 1995 KBO season which saw three teams, the OB Bears, the LG Twins, and the Lotte Giants, go neck-to-neck for the pennant (the title in ’95 was won by the OB, now Doosan, Bears).

However, this league attendance figure wasn’t surpassed for 14 years. After 1995, the KBO began to see dwindling fan interest that lasted for about a decade. What first helped reverse the gradual slide in attendances from 1996 to 2004 was the good showing that the South Korean national baseball team had in the first World Baseball Classic, in 2005, when they finished in third. Another boost to the game there came three years later, when South Korea narrowly lost to Japan in extra innings in the second World Baseball Classic, and then six months later, the South Korean baseball team won the gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

These results convinced many South Korean sports fans that KBO baseball was a product worth supporting. In 2008, league-wide attendance shot up 2.3 K per game to 10.4 K; the next year [2009] it was 11.1 K, and the KBO League began drawning above 11 K (up to 2018). The health of Korean pro baseball was seen in the fact that there was recent expansion. The KBO League finally got to 10 teams, first with the creation of a 9th team (the NC Dinos) in 2013, and a 10th team (the KT Wiz) in 2015.

But after reaching peak attendance in 2017, the KBO League has seen two straight years of attendance decline, including a 9.8% drop in overall attendance in 2019. The KBO League had peak attendance in 2017 at 8.40 million tickets sold, which was 11,668 per game {2017 KBO League attendance}. 2018 saw a 4% decline in attendance, at 8.07 million ticket sold and an average of 11,214 per game {2018 KBO League attendance}. Then 2019 saw a more drastic decline in attendance, at just 7.28 million tickets sold and an average of 10,119 per game {2019 KBO League attendance}.

The explanation for the alarming drop in attendance in 2019 at KBO League games is twofold...
1) A number of the bigger teams had bad seasons in 2019. Like the Lotte Giants, who finished dead last, and dropped over 3,000-per-game in attendance. Also in that category were the Kia Tigers and the Hanwha Eagles, both of whom had below-.440 -percentage seasons in 2019, and both of whom saw a drop-off of around 2,400-per-game in attendance. But then there was of situation of the SK Wyverns, who had a very good season for the second straight year (finishing in 2nd place in both 2018 and 2019), but who nevertheless saw a drop-off of around 750 per game (to a still-respectable 13.6 per game). Why?…see below.
2) The KBO League changed the specifications of their official baseballs to 1 mm wider and 1 gram heavier. And that has appeared to lower offensive numbers in 2019. In other words, the KBO messed with their baseball, and it backfired. {See this tweet from February 2019, by a writer at who is also an employee of the Lotte Giants: ‘The KBO is implementing new baseball. It is 1 mm bigger and 1 g heavier, hoping that it could help neutralize the high-offense environment that the league is known for. According to a simulation ran by the SK Wyverns, the ball resulted in 20% less home runs than the previous one’, tweet from[Sung Min kim].} {Also see this article, The KBO Appears to Be De-Juicing its Baseballs (by Sun Min Kim at on 23 April 2019).} The theory is that the drop in offense (particularly the drop in Home Runs) drove fans away in 2019. {See this, Pitching regains foothold as home runs, attendance drop in S. Korean baseball (by Yoo Jee-Ho at on 2 October 2019).}

Only one team had a substantial increase in attendance in 2019 in the KBO League, and that was the relatively new team the NC Dinos (est. 2013). The NC Dinos went from last-place in 2018, to a wild-card berth in 2019, winning 25 more games in the process, and seeing a 3,700-per-game increase in their crowds, to a more respectable 9.8-K-per-game attendance. That is still below the general league average (in a good season), but NC Dinos’ attendance figures were certainly better than the other new team, the KT Wiz (est. 2015), whose average attendance has dropped 2.1-K-per-game in two years.

As of the 27th of May 2020 (19 or 20 games played), the NC Dinos currently lead the 2020 KBO League, by 3 games over the LG Twins and 4 games over the reigning champions the Doosan Bears. {KBO League standings.}

    Doosan Bears, 2019 Korean Series champions (the Bears’ 3rd title in 5 years)
    두산 베어스, 2019 한국 시리즈 챔피언 (5 년 만에 베어스 3 위)

Photo and Image credits above – Blank map of Seoul, by Mikey641 & OpenStreetMap contributors at File:Seoul South Korea location map.svg ( Overhead view of crowd and field at Jamsil Baseball Stadium right before start of the 2019 Korean Series, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at Oh Jae-il makes leaping catch, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at Oh Jae-il hits walk-off single in 9th to win Game 1 for Doosan Bears, screenshot of video uploaded by Arirang News at Park Kun-woo is congratulated by teammates after his walk-off single in the bottom of the 9th in Game 2, photo by Yonhap via Game 3 standots: Park Kun-wa and Seth Frankel, photo by Yonhap via Doosan Bears players rush the field to celebrate their title, screenshot from video uploaded by BearSpotv베어스포티비 at

Josh Lindblom, photo by News1 via Jose Miguel Fernandez, photo by OSEN via Oh Jae-il, photo by Yonhap via
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Globe-map of South Korea, by Ksiom at File:South Korea (orthographic projection).svg (
-Blank map of South Korea, by NordNordWest at :FileSouth Korea location map.svg (
-Attendance… (
-Lotte Giants’ official shop,[new 2018 cap], thanks for photo of the brand-new Lotte Giants’ deep-navy-blue-and-wine-red ball cap logo.
-KBO teams’ K-stamps (2016) [KBO-team-cap-with-mascot], by Shin Jaeyong/Korea Post

May 11, 2020

Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in German football & Bundesliga table before the restart; plus a chart with: final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs.

Filed under: Germany — admin @ 8:06 am

Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 Timeline in German football, league table before the restart, final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs

By Bill Turianski on 11 May 2020;

-2019–20 Bundesliga (
-World site…
-Official site of Bundesliga (English)…
-Deutsche Welle [in English]…DW/en/sports.
-Summary – 2019-20 Bundesliga: fixtures, tables, results, stats, etc…

-Here is a map I posted in August 2019: it shows German clubs by Membership-Size (56 clubs)…Germany: 2019-20 map showing Club Membership sizes (top 3 levels: Bundesliga, 2-Bundesliga, 3-Liga/56 teams) (figures from January 2019).

-Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (by Matt Pearson at on 8 May 2020).

-Coronavirus: Dynamo Dresden cases leave Bundesliga restart in the balance (by Matt Ford at on 10 May 2020).

2019-20 Bundesliga: COVID-19 Pandemic Timeline in German football
8 March 2020: German health minister recommends cancelling events with more than 1,000 people.

9 March: DFL announced that the Bundesliga season would be completed to ensure planning for the following season, and that any postponements would be to matchdays ‘en bloc’.

11 March: Catch-up match between Borussia Mönchengladbach and FC Köln was played behind closed doors (first time in league history).

13 March: All Matchday 26 games were suspended (Round 26, 13-16 March).

16 March: DFL suspended the leagues until at least 2 April.

6 May: German chancellor Angela Merkel and the leaders of the 16 Federal States of Germany approved resumption of the leagues.

7 May: DFL announces Bundesliga will resume on 16 May, with Matchday 26. All matches to be played behind closed doors, with no more than 332 people in support of the match there at the stadium (figure includes players, coaches
and referees, journalists, doping control officers, stewards, emergency services, groundskeepers and ball boys and ball girls.

(Germany’s ban on large-scale social events remains until the end of August.)

The final Matchday (Round 34) will take place on 27 June.
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Blank map of Germany, by NordNordWest at File:Germany location map.svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Globe-map of Germany, by Rob984 File:EU-Germany_(orthographic_projection).svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Map with Federal States of Germany from States of Germany (
-Attendance figures and Stadium Capacities from World site…
-14 largest German cities from List of cities in Germany by population (
-Closed door match info from -Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (
-COVID-19 timeline and Stadium capacities from 2019–20 Bundesliga (

April 27, 2020

1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees.

Filed under: Baseball,Baseball-1928 MLB season,Retro maps — admin @ 11:15 am
1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees

By Bill Turianski on 27 April 2020;
Sources:, 1928 AL season; 1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Attendances. Source:
-Most logos. Source:,[MLB logos].

Aspects of the map-and-chart:
A). 1928 location-map of the 16 MLB teams. Home cities listed, then franchises listed in smaller text below the home-city name. Each team (franchise) has at least one logo from that year (in this case, 1928); the logos are sized to reflect average attendance from that season: the higher-drawing teams have larger logos-and-or-multiple-logos. In this case, that applies to the top-drawing teams in the NL in 1928 (the Chicago Cubs and the NY Giants, as well as the Brooklyn Robins [aka Dodgers], and the St. Louis Cardinals), and it applies to the top-drawing teams in the AL in 1928 (the New York Yankees, as well as the Philadelphia Athletics). Similarly, the lower-drawing teams in MLB that season have much smaller logos on the map (in this case, such as the Boston Braves and the Philadelphia Phillies).

In my first MLB retro map, I took a look at attendance figures – by team – in this era…{here, 1925 MLB retro map [Pirates win WS].}

B). Population of US cities (1920 figures). A small chart showing the 25-then-largest cities of the USA in 1920 is shown at the upper-left-hand side of the map. MLB representation-by-city is noted there. In my 1926 and 1927 retro MLB maps, I took a look at Populations of US Cities (1920 figures), with a small expanded chart of the one on the map…{1926 MLB retro map [Cardinals win WS].} {1927 MLB retro map [Yankees win WS].}

C). Attendance {data from}. 1928 MLB team average attendances are shown at the upper-right of the map. Two paragraphs above is a link to an article I wrote about MLB attendance team-by-team, circa the 1920s.

D). World Series champions (for 1928, the New York Yankees). World Series champions are represented by a prominent section at the top of the map. A photo of the manager of the WS winner is shown (Miller Huggins), along with 7 photos of the top players on the WS-winning Yankees of 1928 (Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Herb Pennock, Waite Hoyt, Tony Lazzeri, George Pigras, Earle Combes). The players shown were determined by WAR [Wins After Replacement]. Players who have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame [HoF] are noted, by a bronze-colored square with year of HoF election listed.

E). Top players in MLB for 1928 are shown at the foot of the map. Photos of stats leaders in several categories are shown…for Pitchers: ERA, Wins, and WAR (Pitchers); for Position-Players: Batting Average (BAvg), HR, RBI, OPS, and WAR. Again, HoF players are noted.

1928 MLB stats leaders…
ERA, Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). Wins: [joint-best] Larry Benton (NY baseball Giants) / Burleigh Grimes (Pittsburgh). WAR (for pitchers), Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). BAvg, Rogers Hornsby (Boston [NL]). HR, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). RBI, Lou Gehrig (NY [AL]). OPS, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). WAR (for position players), Babe Ruth (NY [AL]).

F). MLB team sections: flanking sections, in alphabetized chart-form, show the 8 NL franchises (of 1928) on the far-left of the map, and the 8 AL franchises (of 1928) on the far-right of the map. The sections include several things…In each franchise’s rectangular box is shown their uniforms from that season, and at least one of their primary logos from that season, along with a narrow bar that is in the team’s colors that season. A photo of the present-day-franchise’s home ball cap is shown [2020 ball caps]. And franchise info is shown for each team, including: years of existence [seasons in NL or AL], location(s), league-titles [Pennants] and MLB titles [WS titles], plus any franchise movements. Standard abbreviations for each team are used. As far as former teams go, to avoid any confusion, I used’s abbreviations. {Here:[team_IDs](MLB team abbreviations).}

    1928: New York Yankees win their second straight World Series title, with another Series-shutout…

In 1928, the American League’s New York Yankees won their second consecutive (and then-3rd overall) World Series title. Coming off the heels of the legendary 1927 Yankees (when they swept the Pittsburgh Pirates in 4 games), the 1928 Yankees repeated, by sweeping the National League’s St. Louis Cardinals. The Yankees beat out the Philadelphia Athletics by 2.5 games for the 1928 AL pennant; the Cardinals beat out the Cubs (by 2 games) and the Giants (by 4 games), for the NL pennant.

The Yankees used only 3 pitchers in the 1928 World Series: Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, and George Pipgras {see photo below}. Between them, they pitched 4 Complete Games. In the 1st game, RHP Waite Hoyt held the Cardinals to just 3 hits. Hoyt went the distance, and the Yankees won 4-1, with Bob Meusal hitting a HR. In the 2nd game, RHP George Pipgras also went the full 9 innings, as the Yanks won 9-4. Lou Gehrig hit a 3-run HR in the 1st inning. Pipgras gave up just 4 hits.

Two days later (Oct. 7 1928) in St. Louis, Missouri, the Yankees won their 3rd straight complete-game-win. This time, the pitcher was journeyman LHP Tom Zachary. (Zachary was picked up off waivers from Washington in August, replacing the injured Herb Pennock.) The Yanks won 7-3, on the strength of Lou Gehrig’s 2 HRs. In the 4th and final game, Waite Hoyt again threw a complete game. The Yankees hit 4 HRs…3 HRs by Babe Ruth, and one HR by Lou Gehrig (his 4th of the Series). The final score, again, was 7-3. The Yankees had swept, and they had avenged their 1926 Fall Classic loss to the Cardinals.

1927 / ’28 was the first time a team had ever swept back-to-back World Series contests. No other ball club in Major League Baseball has accomplished the feat of back-to-back World Series sweeps…but the New York Yankees have gone on to do it two more times…in 1938 / ’39, and then in 1998 / ’99.

Below: 1928 New York Yankees: the first team to ever sweep back-to-back World Series titles…
Photo and Image credits above -
Photo from right-field bleachers at Yankee Stadium [opening game of 1928 World Series], from a screenshot from a video uploaded by New York Yankees at Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, George Pipgras [photo taken before game 1 of the 1928 WS]: photo from Gehrig and Ruth [circa 1928], photo from Wikimedia Commons via


Photo and Image credits on the map page…
1928 World Series champions New York Yankees…
Babe Ruth [colorized photo from 1928], photo unattributed at[@baseballincolor]. Lou Gehrig [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via Herb Pennock [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Waite Hoyt [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Tony Lazzeri [photo from 1929], photo unattributed at George Pipgras [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Earle Combs [photo circa 1927], unattributed at Miller Huggins [colorized photo circa 1929], photo unattributed and colorized by Don Stokes at “Murderers Row”, featuring Gehrig, Ruth, Combes, Lazzeri [colorized photo from 1929], photo unattributed at[Willie Brown]. Photo of 1928 World Series Game 1 ticket, from

1928 MLB stats leaders…
Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1928], photo unattributed at Larry Doyle (NYG) [photo circa 1928], trading card from Burleigh Grimes (PIT) [photo circa 1929], photo unattributed at Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1924], photo unattributed at Rogers Hornsby (BSN) [photo from 1928], photo from the cover of Time Magazine via File:Rogers Hornsby 1928.jpg ( Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], unattributed at Lou Gehrig (NYY) [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via

Thanks to all at the following links…
-University of Texas at Austin online archive (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection),, 1928 AL season1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Attendances. Source:
Most logos from:,[MLB logos].
-1928 Detroit Tigers home jersey script- logo, illustration from
-1928 NY Giants road cap logo, photo from

April 9, 2020

NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed./+ A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences.

Filed under: Hockey,NCAA, ice hockey — admin @ 8:07 am

NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed

By Bill Turianski on 9 April 2020.
Source: List of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team (

The NCAA Division I has 60 ice hockey teams. Those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams are split into 6 Conferences (with 1 current Independent team [Arizona State]). Of those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams, 40 teams have advanced into the the final four of the NCAA Division I Men’s Hockey Tournament (aka the Frozen Four). You can read a timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and all the D-1 hockey conferences, further below.

The map here shows the 40 teams that have made it to a Frozen Four (72 Frozen Fours, from 1947-48 to 2018-19). The other 20 D-1 hockey teams, which have never advanced to a Frozen Four, are also shown on the map, albeit in smaller text-size and without colors or logos. On the map, each of the 40 teams’ Total-Frozen-Four-Appearances are shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total Frozen 4 appearances, the larger the team-colors-circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances +their Division I men’s hockey titles (21 teams have won a D-1 hockey title). Like the team-color-circles, the team’s logo and text are sized, gradually getting larger with more Frozen 4 appearances; plus I bumped up the text 1-point-size if the team has won a D-1 hockey title.

There are two charts at the right side of the map-page.
∙ The smaller chart closer to the map shows the 60-team NCAA D-1 hockey set-up, by the 6 Conferences: with each school’s hockey-venue-location noted, as well as the season the team joined D-1 hockey (or re-joined D-1 hockey). Total D-1 titles by team, and by conference, are also listed.
The chart at the far right-hand side show these things…
∙ School’s team, with the team’s D-1 hockey conference and their primary logo.
∙ Number of Frozen Four Appearances (with last appearance noted).
∙ Number of D-1 men’s hockey Titles (with last title noted).

- {From Wikipedia, here is a map of all 60 D-1 hockey teams, by conference.}

- {From 2016, here is a map of 2015-16 D-1 men’s ice hockey attendance, that I made.} {If you are curious about D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences, go to the right-hand sidebar on my homepage at “NCAA, ice-…”, to see my 2016 posts on the 6 NCAA D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences.}

    A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences

As mentioned, there are 60 Division I men’s hockey teams. But actually, 20 of those of those teams represent schools which are otherwise Division II or Division III schools. Here are those 20 schools with D-1 hockey teams, but whose athletics teams are otherwise part of D-II or D-III…
∙ 4 of the 11 teams from Atlantic Hockey: AIC, Bentley, Mercyhurst, RIT.
∙ None of the 7 teams from Big Ten Hockey.
∙ 4 of the 12 teams from ECAC Hockey: Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Union College.
∙ None of the 11 teams from Hockey East.
∙ 3 of the 8 teams from the NCHC: Colorado College, Minnesota-Duluth, St. Cloud State.
∙ 9 of the 10 teams from the WCHA [ie, all except Bowling Green]: Alabama-Huntsville, Alaska-Anchorage, Alaska-Fairbanks, Bemidji State, Ferris State, Lake Superior State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota State-Mankato, Northern Michigan.

Of these 20 teams from otherwise D-II or D-II schools, seven have won D-1 hockey titles: Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles incl. 2019), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Michigan Tech (3 titles), Rensselaer (2 titles), Colorado College (2 titles), Union College (one title), Northern Michigan (one title).

The annual NCAA Division I Men’s Ice Hockey Tournament began in 1947-48, when the NCAA selection committee chose four top D-1 hockey teams to compete in a single-elimination tournament. In the tournament’s first 29 years (1948-76), all the four teams that were selected for the tournament already comprised the Frozen Four. The first ten seasons of the tournament (1948-57) were held at Colorado Springs, CO. Since then, the tournament has been hosted by a different city each year. Michigan won the first D-1 tournament, as well as 6 of the first 10 tournaments; Michigan today has won a record 9 titles (though their last title was won 22 years ago in 1998). Since 2000, the most successful teams are: Boston College, with 4 titles in the last 20 tournaments (most recently in 2012), then Denver and Minnesota-Duluth, both of whom have won 3 titles in the last 20 tournaments, with Denver winning it in 2017, and Minnesota-Duluth winning it in 2018 and 2019.

So, from 1948 to 1976 (29 years), the D-1 hockey tournament comprised just 4 teams. Then, from 1977 to 1987, the tournament comprised 5 or 6 teams. In 1981, the D-1 hockey tournament became an 8-team competition. In 1988, the tournament became a 12-team competition. In 1999, the term Frozen Four was first used by the NCAA. In 2003, the present-day 16-team competition was instituted. The current 16-team tournament involves four city-venues for the Regionals (aka the first round) (in late March), and then another city-venue for the Frozen Four (in early April). Last year, the Frozen Four was held in Buffalo, NY, and the Minnesota-Duluth Bulldogs repeated as champions, defeating the Umass Minutemen 3-0. This season [2019-20], the tournament was cancelled on March 12, due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Timeline of D-1 hockey conferences…

Prior to the the first D-1 hockey tournament in 1947-48, there was one “proto-conference”: the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League. It was initially comprised of four Ivy League schools’ hockey teams: Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. The Quadrangular League allowed the four to stabilize schedules and to determine the best team of the 4, each season. Army joined in 1946, and it was re-named the Pentagonal League, a name which remained when Army left after the 1947-48 season. Army were replaced by another Ivy League team in 1948: Brown. The grouping continued on until 1954-55. But the Pentagonal League never had the clout to secure an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament (once the tournament started up in 1947-48). This was exacerbated by the fact that the Ivy League never recognized hockey as a D-1 sport. So the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League is considered an informal organization and is not recognized as an NCAA conference.

1947-48: Back when the D-1 hockey tournament started in 1947-48, D-1 hockey teams were Independent. There were 27 teams in NCAA D-1 hockey in that first season in which there was a trophy to play for {see this,[1947-48 D-1 hockey/Regular season]}. Of those 27 teams from 1947-48, 20 teams are still in Division I men’s hockey. Those 20 teams are: Army, Boston College, Boston U., Brown, Clarkson, Colgate, Colorado College, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Michigan, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Northeastern, Princeton, St. Lawrence, UMass, Yale.

This Independents-only set-up in D-1 hockey began to gradually change, with the belated creation of D-1 hockey conferences, first in 1950 with the now-defunct Tri-State League, then the following year of 1951 with the creation of what is now known as the WCHA…

1950: the Tri-State League begins play [conference is now defunct]. The first D-1 hockey conference was the Tri-State League (1950-72), a 3-to-6-team conference based in upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and Vermont, which featured small schools like Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Clarkson, Colgate, Williams (of Massachusetts), and Middlebury College (of Vermont). The Tri State League, despite only having a tiny number of teams (just four teams through most of the 1950s), annually received one of the two eastern bids to the NCAA tournament. The Tri-State League was able to place one team into each D-1 hockey tournament from 1952 to 1960. This accounts for the reason why both St. Lawrence and Clarkson have a considerable amount of Frozen Four appearances (9 and 7 appearances). And meanwhile, after 1951-52, the new MWCHL [WCHA], consisting initially of seven western schools (see next paragraph), was able to earn both western bids for the 4-team tournament each year. This situation, from 1950-51 up until 1959-60, left just one eastern bid available for more than two dozen eastern schools! That was unfair enough as it was, but it got worse in the 1960-61 D-1 season, with 25 Independent teams – all from the Northeast – effectively shut out of the post-season competition…because the 2 western bids for the tournament were sewn up by the WCHA, and the two eastern bids for the tournament went to St. Lawrence and Rensellaer, who were, astoundingly, two of only three teams which comprised the tiny but powerful 1960-61 Tri-State League {1961 D-1 tournament}. This made teams from the New England states feel that the Tri-State League was gaming the system. And, in fact, that is exactly why ECAC Hockey was formed later that year of 1961 (you can see more on that, two paragraphs below).

1951: the WCHA begins play. The second D-1 hockey conference was formed the following season of 1951-52: the still-active Midwest Collegiate Hockey League, or MCHL – which is now called the Western Collegiate Hockey Association, or WCHA. (The MCHL changed its name to the WCHA in 1959.) In 1951-52, there were seven teams that initially comprised the new conference: Colorado College, Denver, Michigan, Michigan State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Instantly, the MCHL had enough clout to secure two of the four D-1 hockey tournament bids. That began in the first season of the MCHL [WCHA] in 1951-52, and that situation of the conference owning half the bids to the D-1 hockey tournament lasted 25 seasons, up to 1976. When the tournament expanded to 5 or 6 teams (1977-80 tournaments), the WCHA still owned 2 bids; when the tournament expanded to 8 teams in 1981, the WCHA got 3 bids (while the ECAC got 4 bids and the relatively new conference the CCHA got 1 bid). In that era (the 1980s), the WCHA and ECAC Hockey were unquestionably the two dominant D-1 hockey conferences.

In the past, the WCHA had a whole lot of successful D-1 hockey programs in it, including Michigan, Denver, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan State, Colorado College, and Michigan Tech. Believe it or not, today, those seven teams account for 38 D-1 hockey titles – which is slightly more than half of the 72 D-1 hockey titles! But the profile of the WCHA has diminished considerably. Only one of those seven title-winning teams listed above still remains in the conference, and it is the smallest program of the seven: Michigan Tech, from the isolated Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The WCHA lost all of its big programs during the tumultuous 2010-14 NCAA realignment {see this: NCAA conference realignment/Hockey}. Basically, all the big programs fled from the WCHA, to either the new Big Ten Hockey Conference (Michigan, Michigan State, Minnesota), or to the new NCHC (North Dakota, Denver, Colorado College). Today, the WCHA has, by far, the widest geographic range of D-1 hockey conferences. The 10 teams in the WCHA are spread all the way from Alaska (Alaska-Fairbanks and Alaska-Anchorage) to Alabama (Alabama-Hunstsville) to Minnesota (Bemidji State, Minnesota State at Mankato) to Michigan (all 3 Upper Peninsula D-1 teams [see two sentences below], plus Ferris State) to Ohio (Bowling Green). The conference is frankly too vast to be economically sustainable, and that has influenced the wish of 7 of its 10 members to break off, to re-form a different conference – the CCHA – in 2021-22 (see last paragraph further below). Of the ten teams in the WCHA, four of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan Tech (3 titles), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Northern Michigan, and Bowling Green. That is a total of 8 D-1 hockey titles.

1961: ECAC Hockey begins play. In 1961, the third D-1 hockey conference was formed: the still-active ECAC Hockey. (ECAC stands for Eastern College Athletic Conference.) In 1961-62, ECAC Hockey was formed as a loose association of 28 college hockey teams in the Northeast (New England states plus New York and New Jersey). At the site called College Hockey Historical Archives, it is said…“ECAC Hockey, as it is known today, evolved slowly, starting from a dispute between the New England and New York schools. For the 1961 NCAA Tournament, the selection committee chose St. Lawrence and Rensselaer to represent the East, bypassing the Boston area schools. In the disputes that followed, it was decided to hold an eastern tournament the following season, with the tournament champion given an automatic bid to the NCAA tournament.” {-excerpt from History of ECAC Hockey (} The 3 New York teams that were getting into the tournament via the small Tri-States League all joined ECAC Hockey as founding members (Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence), thus making the Tri-States League superfluous. In ECAC Hockey’s 4th season of 1964-65, the then-29-team ECAC Hockey split into Division I and Division II set-ups, with the creation of ECAC-2 (which is now defunct).

Throughout the 1961-62 to 1975-76 time period (15 seasons), ECAC Hockey and the WCHA were the only two conferences that got bids for the D-1 hockey tournament. That changed when the CCHA finally got an automatic bid in 1976-77 (see 2 paragraphs below). In the 1980-81 to 1983-84 time period, ECAC Hockey was at its most powerful, with control of 4 of the 8 bids to the tournament. But that changed when 5 ECAC Hockey teams left to form Hockey East in 1985 (see 3 paragraphs below).

The ECAC was the only D-1 hockey conference that was unchanged by the 2010-14 realignment. Today, the 12-team ECAC Hockey is a rather unusual college conference, as it includes within it all six of the D-1 Ivy League hockey teams (Brown, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Yale [Penn and Columbia do not field D-1 hockey teams]). ECAC Hockey has teams spread through 6 states in the Northeast and in New England. Six teams are from New York: Clarkson (Potsdam, NY), Colgate (Hamilton, NY), Cornell (Ithaca, NY), Rensselaer (Troy, NY), St. Lawrence (Canton, NY), Union College (Schenectady, NY). Two teams are from Connecticut: Quinnipiac (Hamden, Greater New Haven, CT) and Yale (New Haven, NY). One team is from Massachusetts: Harvard (Cambridge, MA). One team is from Rhode Island: Brown (Providence, RI). One team is from New Hampshire: Dartmouth (Hanover, NH). And one team is from New Jersey: Princeton (Princeton, NJ). Of the 12 teams in ECAC Hockey, five of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Cornell (2 titles), Rensellaer (2 titles), Harvard, Union College, Yale. That is a total of 7 D-1 hockey titles.

1971: the CCHA begins play [the conference is now defunct, but set to be revived in 2021]. The CCHA had less than half-a-dozen members for its first few seasons, including Bowling Green, Ohio State, Lake Superior State, and Western Michigan. The CCHA was initially full of small programs, and did not get an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament until its sixth season, in 1976-77. The teams in the old CCHA were primarily from Michigan and Ohio. In 1981, the CCHA got much more respectable, with the addition of 3 title-winning programs from the state of Michigan: Michigan, Michigan State, and Michigan Tech. But 3 decades later, the D-1 conference realignment of 2010-14 decimated the CCHA. The CCHA disbanded after the 2012-13 season. However, plans are now set to revive the CCHA in 2021 {see last paragraph, further below}.

1984: Hockey East begins play. Hockey East was formed in 1984-85, by five former ECAC teams: Boston College, Boston University, New Hampshire, Northeastern, and Providence. These 5 decided to create their own league, because of scheduling concerns (they feared that the Ivy League teams in the ECAC would form their own conference, but that never came about). It also cannot be denied that the Hockey East set-up has decreased travel costs among its member-teams (seeing as it is a New-England-only-based conference). The 11-team Hockey East conference has teams spread throughout all of the 6 New England states, including 5 teams from Greater Boston. Hockey East teams are: Boston College, Boston University, and Northeastern from Boston, MA; and two more teams from the Greater Boston region: Merrimack (North Andover, MA) and UMass-Lowell (Lowell, MA); UMass (Amherst, MA), Maine (Orono, ME), New Hampshire (Durham, NH), Providence (Providence, RI), UConn (located in Storrs, CT but the hockey team plays 25 miles west in Hartford, CT), and Vermont (Burlington, VT). D-1 hockey title-winning teams from Hockey East are: Boston College (5 titles), Boston University (5 titles), Maine (2 titles), Providence. That is a total of 13 D-1 hockey titles.

1998: Atlantic Hockey begins play (as the MAAC). The 1998-99 season saw the creation of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC). In June 2003, MAAC Hockey broke off from the rest of the MAAC, and reorganized as Atlantic Hockey. In 2004, the Atlantic Hockey conference was granted an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. Atlantic Hockey is comprised of small D-1 programs, 10 of 11 of which are in the Northeast (except for Air Force Academy, who play in Colorado Springs, CO). Here are the 11 teams in the Atlantic League: Air Force; American International College [AIC] (Springfield, MA); Army (West Point, NY); Bentley (Waltham, MA); Canisius (Buffalo, NY); Holy Cross (Worcester, MA); Mercyhurst (Erie, PA); Niagara (Lewiston, NY); Robert Morris (Moon Township, Greater Pittsburgh, PA), Rochester Institute of Technology [RIT] (Henrietta, Greater Rochester, NY), Sacred Heart (located in Fairfield, CT but the hockey team plays 6 miles east in Bridgeport, CT). None of the eleven teams in Atlantic Hockey have won the D-1 hockey title. In fact, in the 16 seasons that Atlantic Hockey has had an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament, only one team in the Atlantic Hockey conference has ever advanced to the Frozen Four…that was RIT, in 2010.

March 2011: the creation of the Big Ten Hockey Conference is announced. The Big Ten Hockey Conference would begin play two-and-a-half years later in 2013-14. That announcement started up the whole, sordid conference realignment in D-1 hockey. The roots of this was the inclusion of Penn State as a D1-hockey team (Penn State debuted as an Independent in D-1 hockey in 2012-13). The shakeup in D-1 hockey conferences occurred in much the same way (and in nearly the same time-period) as the recent realignments in NCAA D-1 football and in NCAA D-1 basketball. After the dust had settled in D-1 hockey, there were 6 conferences instead of 5, and one conference was dissolved – the Central Collegiate Hockey Associaition [CCHA](/see 3 paragraphs above; also see 2 paragraphs below). The Big Ten D-1 Hockey Conference was instituted in the 2013–14 season, combining Penn State with Michigan State, Michigan, and Ohio State from the defunct CCHA, plus Minnesota and Wisconsin from the severely-weakened WCHA. That formed a six-member Big Ten Hockey Conference. Four seasons later, Notre Dame joined Big Ten hockey in 2017-18, to make it a 7-team conference. Here are the locations of the 7 teams in Big Ten Hockey: Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI); Michigan State (East Lansing, MI); Minnesota (Minneapolis, MN); Notre Dame (Notre Dame, Greater West Bend, IN); Ohio State (Columbus, OH); Penn State (State College, PA); Wisconsin (Madison, WI). Four of the seven teams in the Big Ten Hockey Conference have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan (with a record 9 titles), Wisconsin (6 titles), Minnesota (5 titles), Michigan State (3 titles). That is a total of 23 D-1 hockey titles, which is the most of any D-1 hockey conference, despite its small membership-size.

July 2011: the creation of the NCHC is announced. The NCHC was formed as a reaction to the establishment of the Big Ten Hockey Conference. Basically, the 8 future NCHC teams fled two conferences (the WCHA and the CCHA) which had a majority of small-program-teams. Those 8 teams did this in order to consolidate in a conference with other medium- or large-sized D-1 hockey programs. This, in order to not be overshadowed by the new 800-pound gorilla in the room, the Big Ten Hockey Conference. So four months after Big Ten Hockey was announced, 6 schools from the the WCHA announced their intention of leaving the WCHA, to form a new D-1 hockey conference, to be called the National Collegiate Hockey Conference, or NCHC. Those schools were Colorado College (Colorado Springs, CO); Denver (Denver, CO); Miami (of Ohio) (Oxford, OH); Minnesota-Duluth (Duluth, MN); North [Dakota (Grand Forks, ND); and Omaha (Omaha, NE). A few months later, those six were joined by two more: St. Cloud State (St. Cloud, MN) [also formerly of the WCHA]; and Western Michigan (Kalamazoo, MI) [who would be leaving the soon-to-be-defunct CCHA]. The 8-team NCHC has four teams that have won D-1 hockey titles: North Dakota (with 8 titles), Denver (also with 8 titles), Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles including 2019), Colorado College (2 titles). That is a total of 21 D-1 hockey titles [2nd-most].

February 2020: the revival of the CCHA is announced. (The CCHA originally existed as a D1-hockey conference from 1971 to 2013.) The CCHA will be re-formed, starting in 2021-22. Seven schools, which comprise 70% of the WCHA, announced their intention to start a new D-1 hockey conference, adopting the name of the old CCHA. The 7 teams: Bowling Green (Bowling Green, Greater Toledo, OH); Ferris State (Big Rapids, MI); Lake Superior State (Sault Ste. Marie, Upper Peninsula, MI); and Northern Michigan (Marquette, Upper Peninsula, MI) (all of whom were previously members of the old CCHA when it disbanded in 2013); Michigan Tech (Houghton, Upper Peninsula, MI) (who were in the original CCHA three seasons, from 1981-84), plus Bemidji State (Bemidji, MN) and Minnesota State (Mankato, MN). Now, in their announcement of the conference-shift, there is only talk of “improving geographical alignment” {see this, from}. But what it all really boils down to is this…because of travel costs, those 7 Upper Midwest teams want to break away from three remote teams: the two D-1 hockey teams from Alaska (Alaska-Anchorage and Alaska-Fairbanks), and the D-1 team from northern Alabama (Alabama-Huntsville). As Adam Wodon said at College Hockey…“the three “leftovers” here: Alaska, Alaska-Anchorage and Alabama-Huntsville. I think there’s a pretty clear consensus that everyone feels badly for those programs, and no one wants D-1 to lose teams, but that the other seven schools had to do what they had to do. The path of least resistance for shedding those three schools, was to leave and form a new conference. It was far easier than just kicking them out of the existing WCHA. So now those three will be left on their own, basically nomads. The WCHA could exist in name only, but it wouldn’t matter. With only three teams it wouldn’t get an automatic NCAA bid. Those programs are in trouble, let’s face it.”…{-excerpt from Forget the Name, New-CCHA Will Grapple With Bigger Issues, on Feb. 19 2020, at}
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (
-Thanks to contributors at of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team; of NCAA Division I men’s ice hockey champions.

March 20, 2020

NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most Tournament Appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams) (81 seasons: 1939 to 2019).

Filed under: NCAA Men's Basketball — admin @ 2:11 pm

NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most tournament appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams/81 seasons [1939 to 2019])

By Bill Turianski on 20 March 2020;

Source: NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school (

With the cancellation of the 2020 NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament, I had some extra space to fill. So I decided to make a map I had wanted to make for years.

The map shows all teams (119 teams) which have qualified for the NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament at least 10 times. On the map, each team’s Total-Appearances is shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. (Three teams – St. John’s, UConn, and Villanova – have both their venue-locations shown on the map.) The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total appearances, the larger the circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances. The team-color-circles are almost all centered on each team’s location-dot…unless I could not fit it in, due to geography and “team congestion”. That happened on the East Coast (in the NYC-metro area, and particularly in Philadelphia, but also in Massachusetts/RI, in DC/Maryland, and with respect to North Carolina/Duke). It also happened on the SF-Bay & LA parts of the California coast, up in the Seattle area, and in the southwest-Ohio/Cincinnati region.

I had to cut it off at 10 appearances. I would have kept going, but it was becoming too hard to fit in teams, and still make the map readable.

At the far-left-hand side of the map-page, I made a long chart, which shows 5 things…
A) Each team’s Tournament Appearances Rank.
B) Name of school and its primary logo (or wordmark) for their Athletics teams.
C) Tournament Appearances (with last appearance noted).
D) Final Four Appearances (with last Final Four noted).
E)  Titles (with last title noted).

The map encompasses all 81 seasons of the tournament (1939-2019). The map is based on a list at Wikipedia {NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school}. I deviated from the list in just one way…Teams which qualified for the 2020 tournament, before the tournament was cancelled on Friday the 13th of March, do not have those 2020 bids count toward their total appearances-tally. I did that because it wouldn’t be fair to all the teams from the bigger conferences that never got to play in their tournaments, or all the teams that would have been selected as at-large bids on selection-Sunday.
-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (
-Thanks to the contributors to the pages at, 2020 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament.

March 3, 2020

2020 Copa Libertadores: location-map for the 32-team Group Stage, with Club Histories (Libertadores appearances & titles listed); plus 2 charts: Libertadores titles by club & by country.

Filed under: Copa Libertadores — admin @ 9:30 am

2020 Copa Libertadores: location-map for the 32-team Group Stage

By Bill Turianski on 3 March 2020;

-2020 Copa Libertadores/Group Stage (
-Summary – CONMEBOL Libertadores [2020] (

-Camisetas de la Copa Libertadores 2020 (2020 Libertadores Jerseys/all 32 teams) (

-Experts Preview CONMEBOL Libertadores Group Stage: Profiles of all 32 teams taking part in the 2020 Libertadores Group Stage (

The Group Stage (of 32) begins on 3-5 March (1st game-week). The Group Stage lasts 2 months, and has 6 game-weeks, with the final game-week played on 5-7 May.
{2019 Copa Libertadores schedule.}

Qualified teams for the Group Stage, by country: Brazil has 7 teams (6+ Copa Libertadores holder). Argentina has 5 teams. Ecuador has 4 teams (3+ Copa Sudamericana holder). Colombia and Paraguay have 3 teams each. The five other countries all have 2 teams each (Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela).

The map…
Teams are shown in the two flanking sections on either side of the map, organized by country. Shown there in the country-groupings are each team’s all-time total Libertadores appearances (in the tan-colored column), and Libertadores titles (in the pale-blue-colored column).

Teams which had to play in the 3 Preliminary Stages [19 teams] are shown in italics (lowest-ranked qualifiers). From these 19 teams, only 4 qualified for the Group Stage of 32: Barcelona SC (Ecuador), Guaraní (Paraguay), Independiente Medellín (Colombia), Internacional (Brazil).

At the far left of the map-page is the Libertadores titles list by club (25 clubs have won the Libertadores title). At the far right is the Libertadores titles list by country (of the 59 Libertadores titles, 25 have been won by Argentine teams, and 19 have been won by Brazilian teams).
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Globe-map of South America by Luan at File:South America (orthographic projection).svg ([South America]).
-Blank map of South America by Anbans 585 at File:CONMEBOL laea location map without rivers.svg ([2018 Copa Libertadores]).
-2020 Copa Libertadores (
-Copa Libertadores 1960-2019 Club Histories (
-Libertadores titles list {}.

Thanks to James Nalton at World Football for tweets & re-tweets {WFi}.

February 26, 2020

2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round Proper: map with attendances & fixture list.

Filed under: >2019-20 FA Cup — admin @ 8:22 am

2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round Proper: map with attendances & fixture list.

By Bill Turianski on 26 Febuary 2020;
-The competition…FA Cup .
-2019-20 FA Cup/5th Round (

Question: Why are this season’s FA Cup 5th round matches being played in midweek?

Answer: Because of the clout that the Premier League has…specifically the biggest Premier League clubs. Last season, 4 Premier League clubs reached the Champions League knockout stages, and 2 Premier League clubs reached the Europa League knockout stages. (Those 6 clubs were Liverpool, Man City, Man Utd, and Spurs in the 18/19 UEFA CL knockout stage; and Arsenal and Chelsea in the 18/19 UEFA EL knockout stage.) So the issue of fixture congestion was raised.

The Premier League pushed for changes, and the FA has complied. Not only will all eight of the 5th Round matches this season be played in the midweek, but all matches from the 5th Round on will not feature replays…a match ending in a draw will head to extra time and, if necessary, penalties, to decide the winner.

The one mitigating factor I can see with the scrapping of replays at this late a point in the competition, is this… the smaller and lower-placed clubs – those that would benefit most (financially) from relatively lucrative replays – will have mostly been eliminated. As is the case this season (with the lowest-placed club still alive being 3rd-division-side Portsmouth, who are currently averaging a healthy 17.8 K per game).

But, not last season (2018-19), when small 4th-division-side Newport County and small 3rd-division-side AFC Wimbledon were both still alive in the 5th Round. And not two seasons ago (2017-18), when small 3rd-division-side Rochdale were still alive in the 5th Round…and in February of 2018 Rochdale drew 2-2 with Tottenham (at Spotland), which led to a 5th Round replay resulting in a 6-1 defeat of Rochdale by Spurs, in front of 24,600 ticket-paying fans at Wembley in London. So, about half of the substantial gate receipts from that replay went to a cash-poor Rochdale, a club that draws only around 3.5 K, and who have been punching above their weight in the 3rd division for a number of years now. That is what is being scrapped, by scrapping 5th Round replays.

The 2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round fixtures, which feature ten Premier League teams (1), five EFL Championship teams (2), and one EFL League One team (3)…
Monday the 2nd of March:
•Arsenal (1) v Portsmouth (3).
Tuesday the 3rd of March:
•Chelsea (1) v Liverpool (1);
•Reading (2) v Sheffield United (1);
•West Bromwich Albion (2) v Newcastle United (1).
Wednesday the 4th of March:
•Sheffield Wednesday (2) v Manchester City (1);
•Leicester City (1) v Birmingham City (2);
•Tottenham Hotspur (1) v Norwich City (1).
Thursday the 5th of March:
•Derby County (2) v Manchester United (1).
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of UK historic counties, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:United Kingdom police areas map.svg (
-Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
-Blank relief map of Greater Manchester, by Nilfanion (using Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater Manchester UK relief location map.jpg.
-Blank relief map of West Midlands, by Nilfanion, at File:West Midlands UK relief location map.jpg -List of Greater Manchester settlements by population.
-Attendances from

February 12, 2020

Scotland: map of all clubs that are drawing above 1 K (25 clubs/2019-20 figures up to the 13th of February 2020), with seasons in 1st Level and Scottish titles listed./ + Profiles of the 3 lower-division clubs in Scotland that are now drawing above 1-K-per-game (Arbroath, Alloa Athletic, Aidrieonians).

Filed under: Scotland — admin @ 7:37 pm

Scotland: map of all clubs that are drawing above 1 K (25 clubs/2019-20 figures up to the 13th of February 2020), with seasons in 1st Level and Scottish titles listed

By Bill Turianski on 12 February 2020;

-Premiership table, fixtures, results, attendance, teams, etc…Premiership [2019-20] (
-BBC/Sport, Football.
-BBC Radio Scotland, Off the Ball ['The most petty and ill-informed football show on radio!', hosted by Stuart Cosgrove (journalist & St Johnstone supporter) and Tam Cowan (journalist & Motherwell supporter).]

The map shows all Scottish football clubs which are currently drawing over 1,000 per game (2019-20 season up to 13 Feb. 2020/ 11-to-13 home matches).
Also listed on the map page’s charts are the following, with A through E listed in chart form at the right of the map, and F (populations) shown in a small chart on the left-side of the map…
A). Current Average attendance in 2019-20 domestic leagues, up to 13 Feb 2020 (11 to 13 home matches).
B). Seasons spent in Scottish 1st Level (123 seasons of the Scottish top flight (1890-91 to 1938-39; 1946-47 to 2019-20). With 2019-20 Level, and promotion/relegation noted.
C). Either: Consecutive seasons in the Scottish 1st level (since X season)…
D). Or: last season the club was in the Scottish 1st level.
E). Major titles, with last title listed (Scottish titles, Scottish FA Cup titles, Scottish League Cup titles, UEFA titles).
F). City and Town populations in Scotland (Metro-area and Locality populations of the 25 largest cities and towns in Scotland [2011 and 2016 figures]).

    The 3 Scottish clubs that have improved their average attendance to above 1,000-per-game, since since 2017-18…

-Arbroath (2nd division; currently in 6th/ and were promoted from the 3rd tier in 2018-19)…currently drawing 1,551 per game.
-Alloa Athletic (2nd division; currently in 9th [the relegation-playoff spot]…currently drawing 1,153 per game.
-Airdrieonions (3rd division; currently in 3rd [a promotion-playoff spot])…currently drawing 1,061 per game.

Arbroath FC are from Arbroath, Angus, located on the North Sea coast, by road, 18 miles (28 km) NW of Dundee. Arbroath has a population of around 23,000. Arbroath FC, est. 1878, wear Claret-and-White kits (and have been wearing that since 1882). Arbroath’s nickname is the Red Lichties, a reference to the red light that used to guide the town’s fishing boats back to harbour. Arbroath play at Gayfield Park (capacity 6,600 with 861 seated). Gayfield Park (opened in 1888; renovated in 1925) is situated right on the coast. Gayfield Park is prone to fierce North Sea winds, and is decidedly old school, being comprised mainly of terracing {see photos below}.

Arbroath have not been in the Scottish top flight in 45 years: their last season in the 1st division was in 1974-75 (which was the last season the Scottish 1st division was comprised of 18 clubs). Arbroath have played 9 seasons of 1st division football. Arbroath first played in the Scottish top flight in 1935-36, after winning promotion in 1935. Arbroath had a four-year spell in the 1st division back then, from 1935-36 up to the break in play caused by the onset of World War II in late 1939. When the War ended and Scottish league football resumed 7 years later, in 1946-47, Arbroath’s position in the 1st division was rescinded thanks to the cynical machinations of Scottish league football. I say that because Arbroath never were relegated, but simply re-assigned to the newly re-organized 2nd division in 1946-47. This was done on the following basis…{excerpt from the Historical Kits site}… ‘ ”Division A” (the top level) now consisted of 16 rather than 20 teams. Places were allocated on the basis of crowd potential and facilities so Queen’s Park, who had been relegated in 1939, returned to the top flight while several former Division One sides [like Arbroath and like Alloa/see below] found themselves in Division “B”.’ {excerpt from} After that, Arbroath played 5 more seasons of 1st division football…in 1959-60, in 1968-69, and a 3-season spell from 1972 to ’75 {source: via Wayback Machine to the pre-dumbed-down Football Mad sites, here}.

Since last season, Arbroath have seen an average attendance increase of 600 per game {see caption at top-centre of illustration below}. Arbroath are now drawing above 1-K-per-game mainly thanks to being promoted last season (when they won the 2018-19 Scottish League One by 7 points). But Arbroath’s decent form this season is also helping their turnstile-count. Their last two home matches saw crowds of 1.7 K and 1.4 K. And Arbroath recently beat 2nd-division-leaders Dundee United away (by 0-1 on the 1st of February). Arbroath will qualify for the 2nd tier play-offs if they can move up from their current 6th place, to 4th place (they are only a couple of points back from 4th). {2019-20 Scottish Championship table, here.}

Below: Gayfield Park, home of Arbroath FC since 1880…
Photo and Image credits above – 2019-20 Arbroath jersey, photo from Aerial shot of Gayfield Park [ca. 2019], photo from Interior shot of Gayfield Park [2018], photo by WB Tukker at

Alloa Athletic FC are from Alloa, Clackmannanshire. The town of Alloa has a population of around 20,000. Alloa is located on the eastern edge of the Central Belt [aka the Central Lowlands], on the north side of the River Forth, at the point where the Forth turns into an estuary, 35 miles north-west of Edinburgh (by road), and 8 miles north of Falkirk. Alloa Athletic wear Old-Gold-and-Black hoops, but in the past, including their first 17 seasons, Alloa wore Orange-and-Black hoops {see Alloa’s kit history here at the Historical Kits site}. Alloa Athletic play at the 3,100-capacity Recreation Park, a ground that opened in 1895, and which has a real non-League feel to it. In the background there loom the magnificent Ochil Hills {see photos below}.

Alloa have played just one season of 1st division football, and that was over 90 years ago, in the 1922-23 Scottish League Division One. Alloa finished in 20th that season [last place], and were relegated. 15 years later, Alloa won promotion back to the first tier, in 1939. But this was on the eve of the Second World War, and the 1939-40 season was curtailed after just five games. However, 7 years later, after World War II was over and the Scottish league football resumed, in 1946-47, the Scottish leagues were re-organized. The 1st division was shrunk from 20 clubs to 16, and top flight clubs that were deemed to have insufficient facilities or large enough crowd-sizes were sent to the 2nd division…and according to the Scottish football authorities, Alloa Athletic fell into this category. [See the middle paragraph in the Arbroath section, above, for more on this.] So the two clubs that had won promotion to the 1st division in 1939 – Cowdenbeath and Alloa Athletic – were dealt a cruel blow by being (unfairly) placed back in the 2nd division…as if their promotion in the Spring of 1939 had never happened. Alloa Athletic have never made it back to the top flight.

Before 2018-19, Alloa Athletic were drawing in the 500-to-650-per-game range as a 3rd division team. Then they won promotion via the 2nd division/3rd division Championship Play-offs finals, winning over Dumbarton (2-1 aggregate), in May 2018. And so Alloa joined the 2nd division for 2018-19. And as a 2nd tier side, Alloa increased their average crowd-size by a bit over 500 per game, to 1.1-K-per-game {see caption at top-centre in the illustration below}. Alloa are still drawing in the 1,100-per-game range, now in their second season in the Scottish Championship. But they must improve their form if they are to avoid the drop, because Alloa currently sit 9th, which is the relegation-play-off spot. {2019-20 Scottish Championship table, here.}

Below: Recreation Park, home of Alloa Athletic since 1895…
Photo and Image credits above – 2019-20 Alloa jersey, illustration from Recreation Park, interior shot [2019] with Main Stand, photo by Andrew Hendo at Recreation Park, (action shot) with Ochil Hills in background [2017], photo by Colin McPherson for WSC Photography at Recreation Park, fans on the terracing [2017], photo by Shaun E. Smith at

Airdrieonians FC are from Airdrie, North Lanarkshire. The town of Airdrie has a population of around 37,000. Airdrie is right in the middle of the populous Central Belt of Scotland. Aidrie is located, by road, 16 miles (25 km) east of Glasgow city centre. Airdrieonians FC are more commonly known simply as Airdrie. Airdrie wear All-White-with-Red. Airdrie play at the Excelsior Stadium (opened 1998), a 10,100-capacity all-seated venue. Airdrie regularly play at home in front of 9 thousand empty seats.

Airdrieonians (II) (2002) are the Phoenix-club of Airdrieonians (I) (1878-2002). The first Airdrieonians club played 60 seasons of Scottish 1st division football, winning the 1923-24 Scottish Cup, as well as finishing 4 straight times the runners-up (from 1922-23 to 1925-26). But problems developed in in the 1990s… here is an excerpt from the defunct club’s Wikipedia page… ‘Airdrie sold their Broomfield home to Safeway in 1994, but had to groundshare with Clyde at Broadwood Stadium for four years until the Excelsior Stadium was opened. It is arguably this stadium re-location and the difficulties generated by it that was Airdrie’s first step towards oblivion. The mismanagement of the entire situation by the club’s board, as well as North Lanarkshire Council’s lengthy delay in granting planning permission caused Airdrieonians financial situation to reach critical level. This was not helped by the low attendances at Excelsior Stadium following the completion of the move, which was connected to the quality of football on display due to the lack of funds available to be spent on the team.’ {excerpt from} The club became defunct at the end of the 2001–02 season, despite the team finishing in 2nd place in the 2nd division that season, narrowly missing out on promotion to the Scottish Premier League.

A month after the original Aidrie’s demise, a new club was formed in June 2002, as Airdie United. But it was not as simple as that. The new club in Airdrie was actually the re-located 3rd division side Clydebank FC, a club that was insolvent and homeless (the town of Clydebank is just north of Glasgow and is located, by road, 24 miles west of Airdrie). Here is an excerpt from the Historical Kits site… ‘With the approval of the Scottish Football League the Clydeside club relocated to Airdrie and became Airdrie United, taking over Clydebank’s place in [the Scottish 3rd division]. Thus league football was preserved in the town [of Airdrie] but only at the expense of another club, an event without precedent in the UK.’ {excerpt from[Airdrieonians (II)].} The new club in Airdrie honored the old Airdrie club’s debts. Airdrie United played 11 seasons under that moniker (with 3 promotions up to the 2nd tier, and 3 relegations back down to the 3rd tier). Then in 2013, the club was allowed to re-claim the Airdrieonians name and crest. The club has remained in the 3rd tier since then.

The 3rd division in Scotland is a place where the vast majority of clubs draw below 1,000-per-game. Last season, the only club that drew above K per game in the 3rd tier were Raith Rovers. Airdrie had not averaged above 1,000 per game since the season their name was re-claimed, in 2013-14, when they drew an all-time-best (for the new club) 1,592 (despite having been relegated from the 2nd tier the previous season of 2012-13, when they drew 0.9 K). In the next 6 seasons, Airdrie averaged between 768 and 861 per game. In none of those seasons did they finish higher than 3rd or lower than 8th. So why, in 2019-20, are Airdrieonians suddenly averaging 1,061 per game? Well, they are playing better than the last two seasons (they currently sit 3rd, while finishing in 7th place in 17/18 and in 5th place in 18/19). But there is also this…one of their rivals, Falkirk, are now stuck in the 3rd tier. And on the 28th of December 2019, Airdrie hosted Falkirk at the Excelsior and drew 2,530…which is a rather large crowd for the Scottish 3rd division, where the only clubs that regularly draw above 1 K are down-on-their-luck clubs that traditionally belong at least in the 2nd division…like Falkirk and Raith Rovers. This season, the only times Airdrie have drawn over 1 K at home is when they have hosted Falkirk (who currently average 3.7 K), or Raith Rovers (who average 1.7 K), or their local rivals Clyde (who average 0.9 K). That being said, were Airdrie to win promotion this season, they most likely would draw above 1 K next season as a 2nd division side. {2019-20 Scottish League One table, here.}

Below: Excelsior Stadium, home of Airdrieonians…
Photo and Image credits above – 2019-20 Airdie jersey, photo from Excelsior Stadium, aerial photo from

Sources for charts:
-Attendance figures:
-Seasons in Scottish 1st Level, Scotland – All-Time Table (since 1890/91) [and ending at 2012-13] (
-List of Scottish football champions;
-List of Scottish Cup finals/Performance by club;
-List of Scottish League Cup finals/Performance by club;
-Population figures: Scotland;
-List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom;
-List of towns and cities in Scotland by population (

-Thanks to, for images which allowed me to stitch together the blank topographic map of Scotland {via Demis Web Map Server}.
-Thanks to maiz at File:Scotland in the UK and Europe.svg (
-Thanks to for attendances, from
-Thanks to European-Football-Statistics site for old attendances,
-Thanks to,
-Thanks to the contributors at Scottish Premiership (

January 28, 2020

American Football League: 1962 AFL season, map with helmets/jerseys & final standings + offensive stats leaders; champions: Dallas Texans [future Kansas City Chiefs]. /+ article: History of the Kansas City Chiefs (including origins of nickname, venues played in, helmet history).

Filed under: AFL (gridiron football),AFL, 1962 map/season,Retro maps — admin @ 11:57 am

American Football League: 1962 AFL season, map with helmets/jerseys & final standings

By Bill Turianski on 28 January 2020;
-1962 AFL season
-1962 AFL Championship Game (
-1962 AFL season (
-Illustrated History of Kansas City Chiefs’ uniforms (1960 to 2018)…from Gridiron Uniforms Database (

The map (click on image at the top of the post)…
The map shows the primary helmets and jerseys worn by the 8 AFL teams of 1962, the third season of the American Football League (IV) (1960-69). At the lower-right of the map-page are the final standings of the 1962 AFL, along with home jerseys and helmets of the 8 AFL teams of 1962. At the bottom-right corner are the attendance figures for the 1962 AFL season. At the upper-right of the map-page are standout players for the champions, the 1962 Dallas Texans (the franchise that became the Kansas City Chiefs in the following season of 1963). Below the Dallas Texans of 1962 section of the map page, is a section for 1962 AFL Offensive Leaders, in the following categories: QB Rating & TD Passes: Len Dawson, Dallas Texans. Passing Yardage: Frank Tripucka, Denver Broncos. Rushing Yardage: Cookie Gilchrist, Buffalo Bills. Yards from Scrimmage & Total TDs: Abner Haynes, Dallas Texans. Receiving Yards: Art Powell: New York Titans.

In the 1962 AFL Championship Game, played at Jeppesen Stadium in Houston, Texas, on December 23 1962, the Dallas Texans defeated the Houston Oilers 20-17 in double-overtime. The Texans, coached by Hank Stram and led by QB Len Dawson, had two TDs by RB Abner Haynes. But it took 17:54 of overtime play (2:54 into the 6th quarter), for the Texans to get a 25-yard FG to beat the Oilers (who were the two-time-reigning AFL champions). It was, at the time, the longest pro gridiron football game ever played, and to this day it remains the longest championship game played in the sport. {See photos in illustration further below.}

    The AFL (of 1960-69) had a 10-year battle with the established pro football league, the NFL.

In 1970, the AFL essentially won the battle, by virtue of the fact that the NFL allowed all 10 of the AFL franchises to join the NFL, in a full dual-league merger. Plus, the AFL won the last two match-ups with the NFL…Super Bowl III (1968 season) saw the AFL’s New York Jets beat the NFL’s Baltimore Colts, and Super Bowl IV (1969 season) saw the AFL’s Kansas City Chiefs beat the NFL’s Minnesota Vikings {see the next few paragraphs for more on that}.

After the 1962 AFL season, there were two AFL franchises that would soon change their identities dramatically. These two teams in 1962/63 were the very competitive Dallas Texans (soon to become the Kansas City Chiefs), and the hapless and broke New York Titans (soon to become the New York Jets). These two franchise-changes following the 1962 season considerably helped the AFL in its battle for legitimacy.

The Dallas Texans, who went on to win the 1962 AFL Championship Game, were saddled with a taxing local rivalry with the NFL’s Dallas Cowboys. The AFL team could not compete with the drawing-power of the NFL, despite the fact that the AFL team in Dallas (the Texans) were championship-caliber, while the NFL team in Dallas (the Cowboys) were, at this point in time, a basement-dwelling expansion team. The NFL was just too powerful for even a title-winning AFL team to compete with. {More on this can be seen in the Texans/Chiefs’ Stadiums section, 8 and 9 paragraphs further below.}

In May 1963, 5 months after winning the 1962 title, the AFL’s Texans would leave Dallas, moving 450 miles north to Kansas City, Missouri, to become the Kansas City Chiefs. (The Texans/Chiefs franchise would not change ownership, or color-scheme, with the move). And the New York Titans, under new and more well-funded ownership, would change their name to the New York Jets, changing from dark-blue/yellow-gold colors to green-&-white. And a year after that, in 1964, the re-branded NY Jets would move from the decrepit Polo Grounds in northern Manhattan, NYC to the brand-new Shea Stadium in Queens, NYC…and soon started drawing 50 thousand per game. The Chiefs would not go on to draw quite as well as the Jets would, but they ably filled their new home in KC, the MLB ballpark known as Municipal Stadium. By 1966, the Chiefs were drawing 37-K-per-game, and by 1969 they were drawing 49-K-per-game. {You can see a color photo of their home venue back then (Municipal Stadium in gridiron-football-configuration), and Texans/Chiefs attendance figures, in the illustration below).

And the Kansas City Chiefs kept on with the winning ways they had had in Dallas. The Texans/Chiefs franchise would go on to win two more AFL titles (in 1966 and 1969), as well as winning Super Bowl IV (#4) in January of 1970 (the last of four head-to-head match-ups between the AFL and the NFL) {also see in illustration below}. The Chiefs’ Super Bowl upset-win (over the Vikings) came one year after the AFL pulled off its greatest feat in its 10-year history, when the New York Jets shocked the gridiron football world by beating the heavily-favored Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III (#3) in January of 1969.

So, the roots of the AFL’s eventual triumph over the NFL, in Super Bowls III and IV, can be found in the time between the 1962 and 1963 AFL seasons, when the Kansas City Chiefs and the New York Jets came into existence.

Note: the article below first appeared in this post from 2014, on the NFL’s AFC West Division…
NFL, AFC West – Logo and helmet history of the 4 teams (Broncos, Chiefs, Raiders, Chargers)./ Origins of nicknames./ Stadiums./ Title-winning teams.

    The Dallas Texans/Kansas City Chiefs: 3 AFL titles & 1 Super Bowl title in a 10-year-span…

Photo and Image credits above -
1960-62 Dallas Texans helmet, illustration from Albert Haynes, photo unattributed at Photo of 1962 Dallas Texans AFL Champions team photo, unattributed at Hank Stram with AFL championship trophy, photo unattributed at Abner Haynes in 1962 AFL title game, photo unattributed at USA blank map by Zntrip at Blank map of the United States. Aerial photo of Kansas City Chiefs playing at Municipal Stadium, photo by Kansas City Chiefs at Hank Stram being carried off the field by Chiefs players after their 1966 AFL Championship Game win over Buffalo, photo unattributed at AFL 10 years patch worn by Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, photo unattributed/ uploaded by at Super Bowl IV ( Len Dawson taking the snap in Super Bowl IV vs. Vikings, photo unattributed at Buck Buchanan and Curley Culp tackling Dave Osborn in Super Bowl IV, photo from USA Today via

    Kansas City Chiefs – logos and helmet history (1960-2019), click on image below…

Kansas City Chiefs – logos and helmet history (1960-2014)
Texans/Chiefs helmet illustrations above from Chiefs uniforms.png by fma12, Photo of Chiefs 2012-13 Riddell helmet from Dallas Texans’ 1960-62 wordmark logo from Photo of Chiefs’ circa 1970s wordmark logo from

Origin of Chiefs nickname…
Upon moving his AFL franchise the Dallas Texans to Kansas City, Missouri in 1963, oil-fortune-heir Lamar Hunt was faced with the quandary of having to re-name his franchise. But actually, as hard as it is to believe, Hunt (at first) wanted to keep the nickname and call the team the Kansas City Texans. It took his right-hand-man, Jack Steadman (who was the Texans/Chiefs GM and vice president of operations), to convince Hunt otherwise. The mayor of Kansas City then, H. Roe Bartle, who was very instrumental in the city being able to lure the AFL franchise away from Dallas, was nicknamed “the Chief” (from his days as a Scout Executive of the St. Joseph and Kansas City Boy Scout Councils 35 years previously when he formed a Native Tribes honor society within the Boy Scouts called The Tribe of Mic-O-Say).

The Chiefs became the winning entry (but not the most popular entry by far) into the local name-the-new-team contest that Hunt had organized. The most popular of the 4,866 entries (with 1,020 different names being suggested) were for the nicknames the “Mules” and the “Royals.” “Chiefs”, suggested by 42 entries, was third-most-selected in the naming contest; nevertheless Hunt selected Chiefs as the football team’s new nickname. At other sources (like here) it is said Hunt re-named the team the Chiefs in honor of the large number of Native Americans who (past and present) had called the region of western Missouri and the Great Plains their home. At that is technically true. And that notion is re-enforced by the first primary logo of the new Chiefs franchise {see it by clicking on the on the image above or here}.

But the Chiefs are also named after the nickname of that former Kansas City mayor, H. Roe Bartle who helped get the team to KC and who made good on his promise to Lamar Hunt that Kansas City would have a vast season-ticket paying fan-base there even before the team’s arrival. And this was swiftly accomplished, as in a short span of time (8 weeks) in early 1963, over 20,000 season season tickets were sold to pro-football starved fans in and around Kansas City – before the franchise had even moved out of Dallas, and before the folks who forked over cash for the season tickets even knew exactly which pro team the city was getting. As it said in the timeline/1963 section of the official Kansas City Chiefs website, “the team was officially christened the Chiefs on May 26th, in part to honor the efforts of Bartle.” {excerpt from [dead link/ now available via Wayback Machine at }.

For more on this, see the following article at SBnation, How the Kansas City Chiefs Got Their Name (article by oldchiefsfan from May 18 2009). In the comments section there, 2 commenters who were proud childhood members of the Boy Scouts' Tribe of Mic-O-Say weigh in: jbj8609 says ..."My father and I are both members of MOS (in St. Joseph, MO, not the KC one), and I can confirm this to be 100% accurate. My dad has been “Tribal Historian” here for several years now and used to tell me this story many times. Always thought it was very cool"; bankmeister says..."I’m also a Mic-O-Say member with five consecutive years at Bartle, plus my mom has lived off of Roe Avenue for 25 years. H. Roe and the Chiefs mean a lot to me." {end of excerpts.} The Kansas City Chiefs is a great name that honors Native Americans. Unlike the racist name of another NFL team.

    Stadiums the Dallas Texans (II)/Kansas City Chiefs franchise have played in...

Cotton Bowl in Dallas, Texas (home of the Dallas Texans (II) from 1960-62)...
The Cotton Bowl began as Fair Park, a stadium built on the site of the Texas State Fair grounds, in 1930. Cut-and-fill construction was employed to build up berms for the stands, and this lowered the playing surface twenty-four feet below the original ground level. The stadium initially held 45,000 spectators; in 1936, the name was officially changed to the Cotton Bowl. The following year, 1937, the Cotton Bowl Classic college football Bowl game began being played there. But it wasn't a popularly-attended Bowl game until a partnership was created with the Southwest Conference starting in 1941 (and the Texas A&M versus Fordham game in '41 was the first Cotton Bowl Classic that was played to a sell-out crowd). By 1950 and through the 1960s, the Cotton Bowl could hold 75,000 (it has a 90,000-capacity now). The primary tenant, in its early days through to the mid-1970s, was the SMU Mustangs college football team; the failed NFL franchise the Dallas Texans (I) of 1952 played 4 of their scheduled 6 games there to sparse crowds, before the NFL front office took over the team and folded it at the end of the 1952 NFL season. In 1960, it would be the home of 3 football teams: the SMU Mustangs, the expansion NFL team the Dallas Cowboys, and the Dallas Texans (II), a charter member of the new rival-league, the AFL.

AFL founder Lamar Hunt, though Arkansas-born, was raised in Dallas, Texas (where his father's oil business was centered). His efforts to get an NFL team for Dallas circa 1958-59 had been unsuccessful. When he got the AFL off the ground and running in 1959-to-early-1960, there was never any doubt that he would have one of the 8 franchises in the new league and that it would be located in Dallas. This despite the fact that in the interim - in early 1960 - the NFL had awarded a Dallas franchise to someone else. So Hunt's Dallas Texans were instantly consigned to being the second-team-in-Dallas, simply by virtue of the fact that the NFL was more established. The red-and-yellow/gold Dallas Texans struggled to get media attention in their 3 seasons in Dallas, but in fact, in the team's first year in Dallas (1960), the AFL's Texans drew best in the debut-season of the AFL and outdrew the NFL's Cowboys (24,500 per game for the AFL Texans versus 21,417 per game for the Cowboys). Of course the first-year Cowboys were horrible (they went 0-11-1), while Hunt's Texans were competitive and fun to watch with a prolific-scoring offense (they went 8-6). But the next season, 1961, Texans' attendance plummeted almost 7K per game to 17,571, while the slightly-improved Cowboys (at 4-9-1) saw their attendance shoot up 33% to 24,521 per game. The writing was on the wall for Hunt. As football-crazy and as dynamic and growing as the city of Dallas was in the early 1960s, it still was not big enough to support two pro football teams. In the next season, 1962, even as an 11-3 team en route to the 1962 AFL title (see illustration below), the Texans were still unable to draw as well as they did their first year - they averaged 22,201 (the 5-8-1 Cowboys averaged only slightly less, at 21,778 in '63).

Hunt knew that once the Dallas Cowboys (inevitably) got competitive, they would totally overshadow the Dallas Texans and start claiming a much greater share of the ticket-paying public in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area. So Hunt threw in the towel and began looking for a new home for his team. New Orleans, Atlanta and Miami and Seattle were also considered, but thanks to that huge season-ticket-drive in KC, Hunt moved his team 450 miles north to Kansas City.

Municipal Stadium (Kansas City), home of the Chiefs from 1963-71...
Opened in 1923 and originally called Muehlebach Field, the venue was built as a ballpark for the Kansas City Blues (V) (1902-54) of the American Association. The Kansas City Monarchs Negro leagues team also played there (from 1923-34; 1937-54). For that reason the ballpark was situated at the edge of Kansas City's inner-city neighborhood. Capacity was originally 17,000, with the main feature of the ballpark being a single, roofed stand that ran the whole of the first-base foul-line to the right-field-foul-pole, but on the other side the roof only stretched to third base (making the roof a rounded L-shape). In 1955, prior to the arrival of the Philadelphia Athletics MLB franchise, the city decided to almost completely demolish the stadium and rebuild from scratch. The city ran three shifts - the new stadium was built in 90 days, in time for the April 1955 MLB opening of the Kansas City Athletics (1955-67). The not-quite-V-shaped-roof remained, now in a double-deck form, and capacity for baseball was then 30,000. It was re-named Municipal Stadium.

When Lamar Hunt decided to move his Dallas Texans to Kansas City in early 1963, the stadium was renovated again, but in more of a jury-rigged way - temporary stands were erected in left field to expand the stadium's capacity each fall, but had to be torn down before the start of the baseball season the following year.

Kansas City mayor H. Roe Bartle had helped get the team to KC, and had made good on his promise to Lamar Hunt that Kansas City would have a vast season-ticket paying fan-base there even before the team's arrival. Some sources say that Bartle promised to triple the crowds the team had drawn in Dallas (ie, 21.4 K times 3 equals 64 K) - but even if he did promise that, it would have been impossible because Municipal Stadium in Kansas City only held around 30,000 then, and even after expansion for football, it never had more than a 49,000-capacity {see this,}. The 1963 Kansas City Chiefs actually drew about 650 per game worse than they did the year before as the 1962 Dallas Texans (at 21,510 per game in 1963 versus 22,201 in '62) (note: 10-year AFL attendance figures for the Dallas Texans (II)/Kansas City Chiefs can be seen in the illustration above, and the source for those figures was at THE AMERICAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE - ATTENDANCE, 1960-69 By Bob Carroll at

The Kansas City Chiefs upon arrival in KC in 1963 were reigning champions of the AFL, but the Chiefs then suffered a downturn in form and went 5-7-2 in '63; 7-7 in '64; and 7-5-2 in '65. Cumulative gate figures for those first 3 years in KC were 20,376 per game. So the fact that the Chiefs turned mediocre right when they arrived in KC certainly hurt attendances, and the crowds the Chiefs drew only got respectable after the Chiefs got good again - in 1966, when they tore up the AFL, going 11-2-1, winning the AFL Championship game (over the Bills, 31–7), and appearing in the first AFL-NFL Championship Game [aka Super Bowl I] (losing to the Packers, 35-10). In that great season of 1966, the Chiefs drew 37,010 (an increase of around 15.5 K over their ’65 attendance). Attendance-wise, the Chiefs have never looked back: they drew 45 K in ’67 (going 9-5); 48 K in ’68 (going 12-2); and 49 K in ’69 when they went all the way with an 11-3 record, beating the Raiders 13-6 in the last AFL Championship game and then winning Super Bowl IV [4] by upsetting the heavily-favored Minnesota Vikings by a score of 23-7 in the last game ever played by the AFL (see illustration above).

Following the Jets’ upset of the NFL’s Colts in Super Bowl III, the Chiefs’ similar upset of the Vikings in Super Bowl IV made it plain for all to see that the AFL was the deserved equal of the NFL. Actually, the AFL beat the NFL soundly in the last two match-ups between the two leagues, so it basically looked like the once-derided upstarts had actually surpassed their hide-bound rivals…in ten years flat. The Chiefs played their first two seasons in the NFL at Municipal Stadium (1970-71), then moved into their purpose-built Arrowhead Stadium in September 1972.

Below: the Truman Sports Complex -the first major league sports stadium complex in the USA which rejected the misguided multi-purpose stadium model.
Photo and Image credits above -
Chiefs 2012-14 Pro Revolution helmet, illustration by
Kauffman Stadium and Arrowhead Stadium as seen from the nearby interstate highway, photo unattributed/ uploaded by KingmanIII at [thread: Closest stadiums]. Arrowhead Stadium aerial photo, by Ichabod at [Arrowhead Stadium page].

Arrowhead Stadium – home of the Chiefs since 1972…
To see how the Chiefs’ Arrowhead Stadium came to be, we need to backtrack about 5 years, back to early 1967. Although having just lost in a convincing fashion to the Green Bay Packers in what we now call Super Bowl I, the Chiefs were nevertheless a solid and growing franchise circa early 1967. They had won 2 AFL titles in six seasons, and were now drawing in the 37,000-per-game range. Half a year later in the autumn of 1967, Chiefs were drawing around 45,000 per game [this after their first 3 years in KC when they had lackluster attendance, failing to draw above 22 K per game (1963-65/see attendance figures in illustration above]). All signs pointed to further attendance increases for the Chiefs. They were playing to nearly-full capacity at this point, and the aging Municipal Stadium, located in its inner-city neighborhood, was becoming inadequate for the them and their fans. Locations for a new stadium for the Chiefs and the Athletics were scouted by the city of Kansas City starting in early 1967, but a suitable location was never found, and so just across the county-line in Jackson County, Missouri, at the far eastern edge of Greater Kansas City, a location adjacent to an interstate highway interchange was designated. Hunt had operations-chief Jack Steadman work on the stadium design. Denver architect Charles Deaton was brought in by Steadman and it was Deaton who suggested that the two teams, playing as they were in sports that had such radically different configurations, would be better served if each team had its own stadium. Its own stadium that was configured to its own sport’s configuration (a rectangular-shaped stadium for the football team, and a half-circle-atop-a-triangle-shaped stadium for the baseball team). The 2 venues could share a parking lot complex which would reduce costs by sharing parking and highway expenses. This was the exact opposite of conventional wisdom of the time. The late 1960s was the heyday of the now-derided multi-purpose stadium era (an era that lasted up to the late 1980s), or as I like to call it, the Robert Moses Disease. Circa 1960 to 1988 or so, the urban planners running metropolitan areas ignored the basic fact of the fundamental incompatibility of putting the two very different sports into the same stadium, and forced ugly, astro-turf laden cookie-cutter, multi-purpose concrete stadiums on the public. The whole idea was “we can put our baseball team and our NFL football team in the same stadium, and who cares if the dimensions of the two sports fields are totally incompatible”.

I am not exaggerating in saying that Mr. Deaton’s visionary idea (which is the norm today), has helped to elevate the fan experience in both the NFL and in Major League Baseball. Once there were over a dozen multi-use stadiums in MLB and in the NFL, and they all sucked, because they were designed to host two very incompatible configurations. They were giant soul-less concrete doughnuts that gave the fan – for either sport – vast yawning empty spaces where there should have been seats, and sight-lines looking upon totalitarian-architecture backdrops of brutal concrete. [By 2010, following the Minnesota Twins opening of their Target Field, there was only one multi-purpose stadium still in use in both the NFL and MLB - Oakland's stadium, and its days are numbered.]

Here is an excerpt from the Kauffman Stadium page at,…”In 1967, voters in Jackson County, Missouri approved the bonds for Truman Sports Complex, which featured a football stadium for the Kansas City Chiefs and a baseball stadium for the Kansas City Athletics, whose owner, Charles O. Finley, had just signed a new lease to remain in Kansas City. This was a very unusual proposal; conventional wisdom at the time held that separate football and baseball stadiums were not commercially viable.”…{end of excerpt from The two stadium sports complex, what became known as the Truman Sports Complex, would prove to be twenty years ahead of its time.

But then a wrench was thrown into the works when, in October, 1967, MLB gave A’s owner Charlie Finley permission to move his Kansas City Athletics MLB franchise west to Oakland, CA (in 1968). The folks in and around Kansas City were so enraged about losing their pro ball club they pressured their elected officials to act. Partly thanks to the threat to introduce legislation in the US Senate to remove MLB’s antitrust exemption (put forth by Missouri Senator Stuart Symington), MLB hastily began plans for another round of expansion at the winter meetings in 1967, so both Kansas City and Seattle got MLB AL expansion franchises; and both San Diego and Montreal, Quebec, Canada got MLB NL expansion franchises, all 4 teams set to begin play in 1969.

At about the same time, the Jackson County Sports Complex Authority was created, and construction began in 1968 for the two-stadium Truman Sports Complex (named in honor of western-Missouri-born-and-bred President Harry S. Truman). The second-year Kansas City Royals began playing at the new 37,000-capacity Royals Stadium in April, 1972 (the venue is now called Kauffman Stadium in honor of the Royals’ first owner, Ewing Kauffman). The Chiefs began playing at the new 78,000-capacity Arrowhead Stadium in September, 1972 (after several renovations, Arrowhead, since 2010, now has a capacity of 76,416). The original two-stadium concept, initially designed by Denver architect Charles Deaton and Jack Steadman, was implemented in its final design by the Kansas City architectural firm of Kivett & Myers. The template for what was to be called Arrowhead Stadium is said to have influenced the design of several NFL stadiums. Both stadiums were very well designed and have had very good upkeep – both stadiums are still in excellent shape. And both teams have no plans of moving elsewhere (either out of town or into another costly new stadium), as opposed to the case with EIGHT now-demolished multi-purpose stadiums that were built in the USA in the same era or later. Specifically, in Minneapolis (Metrodome demolished in 2014), in Queens, New York (Shea Stadium demolished in 2007), in St. Louis (Busch Memorial Stadium demolished in 2005), in Philadelphia (Veterans Stadium demolished in 2004), in Cincinnati (Riverfront Stadium demolished in 2002), in Pittsburgh (Three Rivers Stadium demolished in 2001), in Seattle (Kingdome demolished in 2000) and in Atlanta (Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium demolished in 1997) [note: soon Candlestick Park in San Francisco can be added to this list of demolished multi-purpose stadiums, as with the vacating of the 49ers after the 2013 season, the dreary Candlestick Park has no primary tenant].

Below: Lamar Hunt and Bud Adams (photo circa 1960)…
Image credit above ( video uploaded by Scott Sillcox).

    Colors and helmet logos of the Texans/Chiefs

The following link is to a 1 minute and 53 seconds-long video (produced by the NFL and Tide detergent), Kansas City Chiefs uniform and uniform color history (video uploaded by Scott Sillcox at}.

-Illustrated History of Kansas City Chiefs’ uniforms (1960 to 2018)…from Gridiron Uniforms Database (

1960-62 – Red and Yellow/Gold (map-of-Texas-with-gold-star-for-Dallas helmet-logo, on a plain red helmet)…
Lamar Hunt actually wanted the Dallas Texans to wear orange-and-sky-blue, but Bud Adams’ Houston Oilers had already chosen powder blue as their primary color, so Hunt had to come up with a different color scheme (thank goodness for that). Hunt chose a simple yet striking red-with-yellow/gold…the franchise has never worn any other colors. The Texans/Chiefs have also only worn a red helmet with no stripe detail (a wise decision because the inherent high-potency of the color red ends up being diluted by the often-at-cross-purposes imposition of a center stripe…especially when that red is paired with a shape in the logo that is slightly more complex than a block letter or a circle). First (1960-62), the red helmet had a logo that was the-state-of-Texas-with-gold-star-for-Dallas {see that nice design here in a game-worn helmet from the 1960-62 era}.

1963-2019 – Red and Yellow/Gold (arrowhead-with-interlocking-K-C helmet-logo, on a plain red helmet)…
When Hunt moved the team to Kansas City, the story goes he himself drew out the new logo in his kitchen on a dinner napkin…sketching out a design influenced by the San Francisco 49ers’ interlocking-S-F, but with an arrowhead framing the letters K-C instead of the football-shaped-oval on the Niners’ helmet. That design debuted in 1963 and, aside from a slight reshaping of the logo in 1974 (the arrowhead was made a bit smaller and the K-C a bit larger), it has remained the Chiefs helmet design for over 50 years. And rightly so. The Chiefs’ bold yet dignified helmet looks as sharp today as it did a half century ago; the same can be said for their uniforms.

Dallas Texans on map page,
Video of 1962 AFL Championship Game [Len Dawson about to pass to Abner Haynes], screenshot of video uploaded by NFL at Dallas Texans game-worn helmet, photo from Jerry Mays [1962 Fleer card], from Mel Branch [photo circa 1962], unattributed at EJ Holub [photo from 1962 title game], unattributed at Sherrill Headrick [photo from 1961], unattributed at Len Dawson [1962 title game] screenshot from video uploaded by Rusty Brewer at [photo from 1962], unattributed at Chris Burford [1964 Topps card], from Abner Haynes [photo from 1962], AP via Jim Tyrer [1964 Topps card], from

Offensive stats leaders on map page,
Len Dawson [1963 Fleer card], from Frank Tripucka [1963 Fleer card], from Cookie Gilchrist [photo from 1963], from via Abner Haynes [1962 Fleer card], from Art Powell [1962 Fleer card] from

Thanks to,
-Blank map by anonymous US federal government employee, at File:StatesU.svg (
-Thanks to for 1960-era AFL team logos.
-Thanks to Buffalo Bills official site for original Bills logo (1960-61).
-Thanks to Infinite Jets blog for hard-to-find full-color NY Titans logo.
Thanks to the Coffin Corner newsletter, for this pdf, [AFL attendance by team 1960-69] (
-Thanks to the contributors at
-Thanks to the contributors at AFL 1962 season (
Special thanks to Tim Brulia, Bill Schaefer and Rob Holecko of The Gridiron Uniform Database, for giving the permission to use football uniforms illustrations from Gridiron Uniform Database {GUD}.

Older Posts »

Powered by WordPress