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August 3, 2020

England (incl. Wales): Historic Counties location-map of the 1920-21 Football League, when the League expanded to a 22-club Third Division (66 clubs total); Champions: Burnley FC.

Filed under: >ENG 1920-21 w/Historic Counties,Retro maps — admin @ 7:52 am

1920-21_map_with-historic-counties_england_football-league_66-clubs_champions_burnley-fc_post_k_.gif
England (incl. Wales): Historic Counties location-map of 1920-21 Football League (66 clubs); Champions: Burnley FC



By Bill Turianski on the 3rd of August 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

    The map shows the Football League in 1920-21, when the first First Division champions were Burnley FC (their first English title), and when the Third Division was introduced.

Table of Contents:

Part 1). Description of Map page.

Part 2). A synopsis of Burnley’s title-winning season of 1920-21.

Part 3). History of Football League expansion from 1888 to 1921: A section which includes a timeline of the Football League’s first 29 seasons [1888-1921], the creation of the Third Division in 1920-21, and then creation of the two Third Divisions (North and South) in 1921-22.

Part 4). Notes on the First Division attendance in the early years, and the impact of adding two 3rd division leagues by 1921-22 (with bar graph of League attendance 1890-1950).

Part 5). Top Flight teams of 1920-21… Where are those clubs now, 100 years later..?

Part 6). Historic County boundaries of England (pre-1975), compared to the modern County boundaries.

    Part 1: The map shows the Football League of 1920-21, when the Third Division was introduced, and when Burnley FC were the champions of England.

The main map, including a separate London-area map, shows all 66 clubs in the Football League (22 First Division clubs, 22 Second Division clubs, 22 Third Division clubs).

The First Division clubs are shown with their home kits, arranged by region in separate boxes, flanking each side of the main map.
They are arranged in 7 regional sections.
Here is a list of those seven regional sections, including names on each club’s home ground (and years they played there)…

    1920-21 First Division: clubs by Historic Counties

Lancaster [including the cities of Manchester and Liverpool]: (9 First Division clubs)
∙ Blackburn Rovers: played at (and still play at) Ewood Park (1881; and since 1890).
∙ Bolton Wanderers: played at Burnden Park (from 1895 to 1997).
∙ Burnley: played at (and still play at) Turf Moor (since 1883).
∙ Everton: played at (and still play at) Goodison Park (since 1892).
∙ Liverpool: played at (and still play at) Anfield (since 1892).
∙ Manchester City: played at Hyde Road (1887-1923).
∙ Manchester United: played at (and still play at) Old Trafford (since 1910).
∙ Oldham Athletic AFC: played at (and still play at) Boundary Park (since 1904).
∙ Preston North End: played at (and still play at) Deepdale (since 1878).

Yorkshire [the 3 Ridings of Yorkshire]: (5 First Division clubs)
∙ Bradford City: played at (and still play at) Valley Parade (since 1903).
∙ Bradford Park Avenue: played at Park Avenue (from 1907 to 1973).
∙ Huddersfield Town AFC: played at Leeds Road (from 1908 to 1994).
∙ Middesbrough: played at Ayresome Park (from 1903 to 1995).
∙ Sheffield United: played at (and still play at) Bramall Lane (since 1889).

Northeast [Northumberland and Durham]: (2 First Division clubs)
∙ Newcastle United: played at (and still play at) St James’ Park (since 1892).
∙ Sunderland AFC: played at Roker Park (from 1898 to 1987).

Birmingham area: [Warwikshire/Worcestershire/Staffordshire]: (2 First Division clubs)
∙ Aston Villa: played at (and still play at) Villa Park (since 1897).
∙ West Bromwich Albion: played at (and still play at) the Hawthorns (since 1900).

Derbyshire: (1 First Division club)
∙ Derby County: played at the Baseball Ground (from 1895 to 1997).

London area [County of London and Middlesex]: (3 First Division clubs)
∙ Arsenal: played at Highbury (from 1913 to 2006).
∙ Chelsea: played at (and still play at) Stamford Bridge (since 1905).
∙ Tottenham Hotspur: played at White Hart Lane (from 1899 to 2017).

Next to the 22 1st division clubs’ home kits are each club’s current (2020) badge. The 22 First Division clubs also have home-jersey segments next to their location-dots on the map. The 22 Second Division clubs have slightly smaller home-jersey segments next to their location-dots on the map. And the 22 Third Division clubs have even smaller home-jersey segments next to their location-dots on the map. The source of the illustrated kits and jersey-segments is the excellent site Historical Football Kits (historicalkits.co.uk).

Note on the location-dots…a black dot shows the location of the club’s home ground in 1920-21; grey dots show future grounds the club would go on to play in. Listed next to each location-dot is the date that the club played at each of their grounds (in tiny 10-point type).

The main map and the London area map both show the borders of the Historic Counties (pre-1975). {See Part 6, a section on Historic Counties, further below.} Any Historic County in England (or Wales) which had a Football League club in 1920-21 is shown on the map(s) with a tinted overlay.

At the top-centre of the map page is a section devoted to the 1921 title-winners, Burnley FC of Lancashire {see more on this in Part 2, below}. Below that, in the centre of the map-page, is a section devoted to the 5 top scorers in the First Division in 1920-21.

At the right-hand side of the map page are the tables for the 3 divisions of the 1920-21 Football League. Next to each club is their 1920-21 home-jersey segment, and the club’s current (2020) badge. If the club in 1920-21 wore a badge on their jersey, that is also shown (but very few clubs wore badges on their jerseys back then). The tables include the usual (Wins, Draws, Losses, Points) plus Goal Average. (Goal Average was Goals Scored divided by Goals Conceded. It was used as a tiebreaker from 1888 to 1976. It was replaced by Goal Difference in 1976-77. The problem with goal average was that it encouraged lower scoring games, as this page at Wikipedia shows, Goal Difference v. Goal Average.) At the far right-hand side of the 1920-21 Football League tables are each club’s home league average attendance.

Finally, at the lower left-hand side of the map page, next to the map’s Legend, is a list of the 30 largest cities in England in 1921. {Source: List of towns and cities in England by historical population (en.wikipedia.org).} The 14 largest cities in England in 1921 are shown on the map…London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Bradford, Hull, Newcastle, Nottingham, Portsmouth, Stoke-on-Trent, Leicester.



    Part 2: The 1920-21 season, when Burnley FC, of Burnley, Lancashire, were the football champions of England.

Most successful clubs and top-drawing clubs circa 1920…
1920-21 was the 29th season of the Football League, and the second season back after World War I. Aston Villa was the most successful English club to that point in time, with 6 titles. Aston Villa had last won the title in 1910 (six seasons earlier). The second-most successful club was Sunderland, with 5 titles. Sunderland had last won the title in 1912 (four seasons earlier).

The best drawing clubs circa 1920 were Newcastle United and Chelsea {year-by-year attendance, here}. Both Newcastle and Chelsea were drawing at or near 40 thousand per game. In 1920-21, there was phenomenal and record-breaking attendance through all three divisions. The 1st division overall average attendance in 1920-21 would not be surpassed for another 26 years (not until 1946-47). The 1st division as a whole averaged an astounding 29.2 K per game. The 2nd tier drew also drew very well, with an average crowd of 16.7 K. And the new 3rd tier, comprised almost entirely of formerly non-League sides all from the south of England (and of Wales), drew an impressive 10.6 K per game. The following season of 1921-22 would see another 3rd division added, this time comprised of formerly non-League sides all from the north of England (and Wales). {For more on that, see Part 3, below, which includes a timeline of Football League expansion from 1888 to 1921.} {More on attendance in part 4, further below.}

In 1920-21, Burnley, a founding member of the Football League in 1888, were playing in their 15th season in the First Division, and were in their 4th consecutive top flight season. (Burnley had won promotion back to the First Division in 1913). Burnley’s Manager John Haworth was starting his 11th season at the helm. John Haworth had previously led Burnley to promotion in 1913, and to the FA Cup title in 1914.

As mentioned, the 1920-21 season was the second season back, after four Football League seasons were cancelled, due to the Great War [World War I]. The previous season of 1919-20 saw Burnley finish in 2nd place, 9 points behind the title-winners, West Bromwich Albion.

Burnley got off to a terrible start in 1920-21, losing their first 3 matches (losing at home to Bradford City, then losing away to Huddersfield Town, then losing away to Bradford City). So Manager John Haworth made several changes to the squad, including the reinstatement of both Goalkeeper Jerry Dawson and Defender/Captain Tommy Boyle. Then on the 6th of September 1920, Burnley beat Huddersfield 3–0, at home at Turf Moor; the goalscorers were Bob Kelly, Tommy Boyle, and Billy Nesbitt.

At that point in early September 1920, Burnley began an unbeaten run that would extend to a then-record 30 games. Burnley’s 30-game-unbeaten-run included 21 wins, and zero dropped points at Turf Moor. Burnley’s unbeaten run was an English first division record for 83 years, until it was bettered by Arsenal in 2003–04 (Arsenal’s unbeaten run went beyond a full season, to 49 games).

Burnley reached first place on 20 November 1920, with a 2-2 draw at Oldham. Burnley remained leaders for the rest of the season. The Clarets’ unbeaten run went all through October, November, December, January, and February. At Christmas time, Burnley led the league by 3 points. On 15 February, Burnley beat Blackburn 3-1 at Turf Moor, in front of a team season-high home attendance of 41,500. (Burnley drew an average of 31,535 to Turf Moor in 1920-21, which was a little over 2,000 more per game than the league average of 29,252.) {1920-21 First Division attendance figures can be seen at European-Football-Statistics.co.uk; also on the map page, at the far right hand side are average attendance figures for all 3 League divisions, and all 66 League teams.}

Burnley’s 30-game unbeaten run ended in late March, and it ended only when Burnley had to (ridiculously) play two games in two days. Burnley finally lost a match on 26 March, to title-challengers Manchester City, 3-0 away – which was just one day after they had beaten Manchester United 1-0 at Turf Moor. At that point, Burnley were 7 points clear at the top of the table. Burnley then beat Man United away and Man City at home, and the title was just one good result away. But then, mirroring their early season problems, Burnley finished the season winless in their last 6 games. But they had built up enough of a lead that a 1-1 draw, away to Everton, on the 23rd of April, clinched the title for them, with 3 games to spare.

The key players in Burnley’s title-winning season of 1920-21 were Goalkeeper Jerry Dawson, Forward Joe Anderson, Forward Bob Kelly and Captain/Defender Tommy Boyle. The Renfrewshire, Scotland-born Joe Anderson had 25 goals in league games that season (6th-best in the league). Bob Kelly, born near Wigan in Lancashire, scored a league-10th-best 20 goals that season. Tommy Boyle, who was born near Barnsley in Yorkshire, had previously captained two teams to the FA Cup title: Barnsley in 1912 and Burnley in 1914. As mentioned earlier, Boyle had started the season on the bench, but manager Haworth put him back in the squad on the same game that started their 30-game unbeaten run. Tommy Boyle led all Burnley defenders with 7 goals in 1920-21. {Joe Anderson, Bob Kelly, Tommy Boyle and Jerry Dawson can be seen in photos on the map page, in the Burnley section at the top-center; there is also a photo of Secretary/Manager John Haworth, an aerial shot of Turf Moor from the late 1920s, two team photos, and a banner from the Burnley matchday programme of 2 April 1921.}

    Part 3: In 1920-21, the Football League expanded from 44 teams to 66 teams, with the addition of a Third Division.

Before that is discussed, here is a timeline of the Football League, from its creation in 1888-89, up to 1920-21…
{Note: all seasons listed below are linked to their pages at en.wikipedia.org (click on the date).}
1888-89: 12 teams… the Football League is established with 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England…Accrington FC [defunct], Aston Villa, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Derby County, Everton, Notts County, Preston North End, Stoke FC [present-day Stoke City], West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers. {See this: One letter, two meetings and 12 teams – the birth of league football (by Paul Fletcher at bbc.com/sport/football from Feb. 2013).}
1890-91: 14 teams…in its 4th season, the League expands by two teams, to 14 teams.
1892-93: 28 teams…in its 5th season, the Football League expands to a second division and is now comprised of 28 teams (with the First Division now comprising 16 teams). Some of the arriving clubs in the new 12-team Second Division come into the League from the failed rival-league the Football Alliance (1889-92). Promotion and relegation is to be decided by test matches between the bottom 3 finishers in D-1 and the top three finishers in D-2. Also, the bottom four finishers in D-2 must pass re-election by League members, or be demoted out of the League (later changed to bottom 3 finishers).
1893-94: 31 teams…in its 6th season, the Football League expands by 3 teams to 31 teams, with the addition of 3 more teams to the now-15-team Second Division.
1894-95: 32 teams…in its 7th season, the Football League expands by one team to 32 teams, with the addition of another team to the now-16-team Second Division.
1898-99: 36 teams…in its 11th season, the Football League expands by 4 teams to 36 teams, with the addition of 2 teams to each division, making D-1 and D-2 both 18-team leagues. ALSO, Promotion-and-Relegation replaces Test Matches…now, the bottom 2 finishers in D-1 would be relegated down to D-2, while the top 2 finishers in D-2 would be promoted up to D-1 (and the bottom 3 finishers in D-2 still had to pass re-election to stay in the League).
1905-06: 40 teams…in its 18th season, the Football League expands by 4 teams to 40 teams, with the addition of 2 teams to each division, making D-1 and D-2 both 20-team leagues. ALSO, clubs from the South of England enter the League for the first time: the first two southern-England-based clubs to join the League were Chelsea, and Clapton Orient [present-day Leyton Orient].
1915: football is suspended in England following the outbreak of the Great War [WW I]. Four seasons of the Football League are lost (1915-16 to 1918-19).
1919-20: 44 teams…with the return of football in England, the Football League expands by 4 teams to 44 teams, with the addition of 2 teams to each division, making D-1 and D-2 both 22-team leagues.
1920-21: 66 teams…in its 20th season, the Football League expands by 22 teams to 66 teams, with the creation of a Third Division. ALSO, clubs from Wales enter the League for the first time: four clubs, all from South Wales, join the League (Cardiff City into the Second Division; Swansea Town [Swansea City], Newport County, and Merthyr Town into the Third Division).

1920-21 was the second season that the Football League was back in play, following World War I. This was when the League expanded once again – into a third division. In 1920-21, that new 3rd tier was comprised of teams almost exclusively from the heretofore-under-represented South of England (and Wales)…all but one were located south of Birmingham (see next few sentences). 23 of the 24 of the clubs in the new 1920-21 Third Division were teams which had been, previously, in the [non-League] 1919-20 Southern League Division One {league table, here}. The only club from the 1919-20 Southern League Division One that did not join the new Football League Third Division was Cardiff City, who were elected straight into the Football League Second Division. And to make room for that, the last-place finisher of the 1919-20 Football League Second Division was relegated into the new 3rd division. That club was Grimsby Town. Why did Cardiff City, Wales’ biggest football club (then and now), receive such special treatment (ie, an immediate promotion)?… ‘As Cardiff City was long considered a potential entrant for the Second Division due to their FA Cup exploits and Southern League dominance, they were sent directly into the Second Division’…{excerpt from en.wikipedia.org/Football_League_Third_Division}. Some might say that was simply blatant favoritism, and I don’t disagree. However, it must be pointed out that the 1920-21 Cardiff City squad was a strong enough team to finish in second place in their debut season in the League (and thus win promotion to the 1921-22 First Division). So Cardiff City went from non-League football, to the top flight, in one season (and were the last team to ever do so).

The 66-teams set-up in the Football League lasted exactly one season (1920-21).
One year later (1921-22), the new south-ward imbalance of the lower part of the Football League was corrected, when another Third Division in the Football League was established. Since there was no northern equivalent to the Southern League, this new 1921-22 Third Division North was comprised of teams from the most prominent of the non-League leagues in the Midlands and the North. Those leagues which supplied teams into the new Football League Third Division North in 1921-22 were: the Midland League, the Central League, the North Eastern League, the Lancashire Combination, and the Birmingham Combination.

So, in 1921-22, there was the newly-established Third Division North and there was the newly-established Third Division South (each with 22 teams, and each being parallel 3rd divisions). That made it 88 teams in the Football League. This 88-team Football League set-up, including two equal 3rd tier leagues, existed for twenty one seasons (1921-22 to 1949-50). Then, in 1950-51, the whole Football League set-up expanded slightly more, to 92 teams. So, in 1950-51 there were: 22 teams in the 1st Division, 22 teams in the 2nd Division, 24 teams in the 3rd Division North and 24 teams in the 3rd Division South. (That number of teams – 92 – still stands today, in concept, if not legal framework.) Then, in 1957-58, the two regional 3rd divisions were eliminated, with the creation of a new national Third Division and a new national Fourth Division. This set-up existed all through the 1960s and the 1970s and the 1980s, and only changed when the Premier League ‘evolved’ from the old First Division, in 1992-93. The now-20-team 1st division…aka the Premier League…might be a separate legal entity from the Football League, but it is still the top tier of the English football league system. And the Football League’s three tiers still sit below that. So, in England (including Wales), there are still 92 teams in the four leagues above the vast non-League Pyramid.

    Part 4: Notes on the First Division attendance in the early years, and the impact of adding two 3rd division leagues by 1921-22.

As mentioned in part 2, 1920-21 was the 29th season of the Football League. The Football League had grown remarkably, with crowds now nearing a 30-thousand-per-game average in the top tier. And the Football League had grown from a single 12-team league to a three-tier 66-team set-up. It had fought off an early rival league – the Football Alliance: The Football Alliance existed from 1889-92, with its 12 members merging into the Football League in 1892, joining the newly formed Second Division of the Football League.

England: Football League Average Attendance, 1988-89 to 1949-50 – League averages, by Division…
Click on image below for full-size chart
england_football-league_attendance-1889-to-1950_bar-chart_f_.gif
Graph by billsportsmaps.com; attendance figures from european-football-statistics.co.uk.

The first season of 1888-89 saw crowds averaging only 4,600 per game. {Year-by-year English League-average attendance figures from european-football-statistics.co.uk, here.} Growth was slow at first. 5 years on, in 1892-93 (when the Football Alliance clubs came over to augment the new Second Division), attendance was at 7,000 per game in the 1st tier, and 2,200 in the new 2nd tier. The creation of a second division did not seem to negatively affect top flight crowds, though, of course, if the League had not created the Second Division, attendances might have increased. But then again, another rival-league like the Alliance might have threatened the League, so you could say expansion to the Second Division was inevitable. (One could also make the same argument for the League’s expansion into the two 3rd divisions.)

It took eleven seasons for the First Division to reach 10-K-per-game, in 1898-99 (with the Second Division drawing 4.2-K per game). And even then, the next season of 1900 saw a slight decrease in crowd size (of 0.5-K-per-game). It took 19 seasons for the 1st division to make an attendance increase of 2,000-per-game…that happened in 1906-07, when average crowds increased by 2.1-K-per-game: from 13.4-K in 1906, to 15.5-K in 1907.

Twenty-thousand per game was finally reached in the 1913-14 season, and that season also saw the 2nd division draw 10-K per-game for the first time. The outbreak of World War I was in June 1914, and the next season of the Football League in 1914-15 saw a drop in attendance as the war loomed. Then there were the 4 seasons lost to World War I. The first season after the war – 1919-20 – saw a large increase in average crowd size: 24.0-K in the 1st tier and 12.8-K in the 2nd tier. Those are very solid numbers. And in 1920-21, attendance continued to skyrocket, to a phenomenal 29,200 per game. And an impressive 16.3-K per game in the 2nd tier. And a remarkable 10.8-K per game in the new Third Division. Ten thousand per game in the new 3rd division! That’s how starved for League football fans in the south of England were (because 21 of the 22 teams in the new 3rd division in 1920-21 were southern clubs).

It bears mentioning that the 29.2-K-per-game attendance that the 1st division drew in 1920-21 was not surpassed for 26 years. It wasn’t until 1946-47, the first season back after World War II, that there was better attendance in the top flight than in 1920-21 (20 seasons). (In 1946-47, the 1st division averaged a then-record 32.2-K, then two seasons later in 1948-49 the 1st division reached its all-time record attendance of 38.7-K per game. Which has almost, but not quite, been bested by the Premier League in 2019-19 and in 2019-20. Again, see attendances by year, here.)

Why did the 1st division’s overall attendance drop after 1920-21, and why did top flight attendance continue to plateau all through the rest of the 1920s and all of the 1930s? Well, the global Depression of the 1930s certainly contributed to flat attendance in that decade, but what about in the 1922-to-’29 time period? That is to say, when the economy was fine, and the League had just experienced its two best-drawing seasons.

I would say it was because of the introduction of the second, parallel 3rd division in 1921-22. Because that added 22 Northern-or-Midlands-based clubs into the League, and many of the people attending matches of those new 3rd-Division-North League clubs would have been going to other northern-based Football League matches in previous seasons. By the same token, there is a reason why the season of 1920-21 saw considerable attendance increase despite the creation of the new 3rd tier. It was because all those new League clubs in the new 3rd tier in 1920-21 were southern-based clubs (except for Grimsby Town). And the 1st division had just 3 southern-based clubs back then in 1920-21 (Spurs, Arsenal, Chelsea), and the 2nd division had only four clubs located in the south back then (Cardiff City [of Wales], Bristol City, Clapton [Leyton] Orient, Fulham).

So in 1920-21, in the south of England (and Wales), there was a vast untapped market for League football – even 3rd division League football. But in the following season (1921-22), when the Football League created a parallel 3rd division comprised entirely of northern-based clubs, there was a much smaller market for 3rd division League football up north. Because there were so many big League clubs already up there in the North and in the Midlands. The Football League football market was pretty saturated up there (and it still is today, especially around Greater Manchester, Merseyside, and Lancashire).

Want more proof that the over-saturation of League football in the North hurt attendance figures? Well, in all of the 28 seasons that the dual-North/South-3rd-division set-up existed (from 1921 to ’57), the Third Division North never had higher attendance than the Third Division South. It was never even close: never in any of those 28 seasons was the 3rd-North’s overall attendance within 2.0-K-per-game of the 3rd-South’s. Again, see the chart above (and click on it for an enlarged image) or see the E-F-S site’s England page {here}.

After 1921-22, for nearly two decades, 1st division football attendance did not increase. There was no 1st division crowd-size increase for 18 consecutive seasons, from 1921-22 to 1938-39.



    Part 5: Notes on the Top Flight teams of 1920-21… Where are those clubs now, 100 years later..?

Each of the 22 top flight teams of 1920-21 are below shown in order of finish, with the following information…
# in 1920-21. Club. 100 years later…2019-20 league finish (#in league pyramid). Seasons played in 1st division (consecutive seasons in 1st div/or: last time in 1st div). English titles (last). FA Cup titles (last). Average attendance*
*Average attendance is for 2019-20 from domestic home league matches played up to 15 March 2019; post-March 15 closed-door (ie, zero attendance) matches discounted from attendance average.
(Note: for all the clubs listed below, Top flight seasons & Consecutive seasons includes the season starting in September 2020 [2020-21].)
(Note: there have been 122 seasons of English 1st Division/Premier League, including 2020-21.)

1920-21 First Division
∙1st place in 1920-21: Burnley FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 10th place in Premier League (#10 in league pyramid). 58 seasons in 1st division (5 consecutive top flight seasons). 2 English titles (last in 1960); 1 FA Cup title (1914). 20,260 avg attendance in 2019-20 (30th best attendance in English football in 2019-20).

∙2nd place: Manchester City FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 2nd place in Premier League (#2 in league pyramid). 92 seasons the in 1st division (19 consecutive top flight seasons). 6 English titles (last in 2019); 6 FA Cup titles (last in 2019). 54,219 avg attendance in 2019-20 (5th best).

∙3rd place: Bolton Wanderers FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 23rd place (last place) in League One (3rd division) (#67 in league pyramid)/relegated to 4th division. 73 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2012). 4 FA Cup titles (1958). 11,480 avg attendance in 2019-20 (46th best).

∙4th place: Liverpool FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 1st place in Premier League (#1 in league pyramid) (English champions). 106 seasons in the 1st division (59 consecutive top flight seasons). 19 English titles [2nd-best All-time] (2020). 7 FA Cup titles (2006). 53,143 avg attendance in 2019-20 (6th best).

∙5th place: Newcastle United FC.
100 years later…13th place in Premier League (#13 in league pyramid). 89 seasons in the 1st division (4 consecutive top flight seasons). 4 English titles (1927). 6 FA Cup titles (1955). 48,248 avg attendance in 2019-20 (7th best).

∙6th place: Tottenham Hotspur FC. (Note: Tottenham won the 1921 FA Cup title, beating Wolverhampton 1–0.)
100 years later…2019-20: 6th place in Premier League (#6 in league pyramid). 86 seasons in the 1st division (43 consecutive top flight seasons). 2 English titles (1961). 8 FA Cup titles (1991). 59,384 avg attendance in 2019-20 (4th best).

∙7th place: Everton FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 12th place in Premier League (#12 in league pyramid). 118 seasons in the 1st division [All-time English record] (67 consecutive top flight seasons). 9 English titles (1987). 5 FA Cup titles (1995). 39,150 avg attendance in 2019-20 (10th best).

∙8th place: Middlesbrough FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 17th place in EFL Championship (2nd division) (#37 in league pyramid). 62 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2017). 19,933 avg attendance in 2019-20 (31st best).

∙9th place: Arsenal FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 8th place in Premier League (#8 in league pyramid). 104 seasons in the 1st division last in 2017 (96 consecutive top flight seasons [All-time English record]). 13 English titles [3rd-best All-time] (2004). 14 FA Cup titles [All-time English record] (2020). 60,279 avg attendance in 2019-20 (2nd best).

∙10th place: Aston Villa FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 17th place in Premier League (#17 in league pyramid). 107 seasons in the 1st division [2nd-best All-time] (2 consecutive top flight seasons). 7 English titles (1981). 7 FA Cup titles (1957). 41,661 avg attendance in 2019-20 (8th best).

∙11th place: Blackburn Rovers FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 11th place in EFL Championship (2nd division) (#31 in league pyramid). 72 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2012). 3 English titles (1995). 6 FA Cup titles (1928). 13,873 avg attendance in 2019-20 (40th best).

∙12th place: Sunderland AFC.
100 years later…2019-20: 8th place in EFL League One (3rd division) (#52 in league pyramid). 86 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2017). 6 English titles (1936). 2 FA Cup titles (1973). 19,933 avg attendance in 2019-20 (31st best).

∙13th place: Manchester United FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 4th place in Premier League (#4 in league pyramid). 96 seasons in the 1st division (46 consecutive top flight seasons). 20 English titles [All-time English record] (2013). 12 FA Cup titles [2nd-best All-time] (2016). 73,393 avg attendance in 2019-20 (Best attendance in England).

∙14th place: West Bromwich Albion FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 2nd place in EFL Championship (2nd division) (#22 in league pyramid)/promoted automatically to Premier League for 2020-21. 81 seasons in the 1st division (had been relegated out in 2019/promoted back in 2020). 1 English title (1920). 5 FA Cup titles (1968). 24,053 avg attendance in 2019-20 (22nd best).

∙15th place: Bradford City AFC.
100 years later…2019-20: 9th place in EFL League Two (4th division) (#76 in league pyramid). 12 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2001). 1 FA Cup title (1911). 14,309 avg attendance in 2019-20 (38th best).

∙16th place:Preston North End FC.
100 years later…2019-20: 9th place in EFL Championship (2nd division) (#29 in league pyramid). 46 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 1961). 2 English titles (1890). 2 FA Cup titles (1938). 13,579 avg attendance in 2019-20 (43rd best).

∙17th place: Huddersfield Town AFC.
100 years later…18th place in EFL Championship (2nd division) (#38 in league pyramid). 33 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2019). 3 English titles (1926). 1 FA Cup title (1922). 21,748 avg attendance in 2019-20 (27th best).

∙18th place: Chelsea FC.
100 years later…3rd place in Premier League (#3 in league pyramid). 86 seasons in the 1st division (32 consecutive top flight seasons). 6 English titles (2017). 8 FA Cup titles (2018). 40,453 avg attendance in 2019-20 (9th best).

∙19th place: Oldham Athletic AFC.
100 years later…2019-20: 19th place in EFL League Two (4th division) (#86 in league pyramid). 12 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 1994). 3,466 avg attendance in 2019-20 (85th best).

∙20th place: Sheffield United FC.
100 years later…9th place in Premier League (#9 in league pyramid). 62 seasons in the 1st division (2 consecutive top flight seasons). 1 English title (1898). 4 FA Cup titles (1925). 30,869 avg attendance in 2019-20 (14th best).

∙21st place: Derby County FC (relegated to the 2nd division for 1921-22).
100 years later…10th place in EFL Championship in 2019-20 (#30 in league pyramid). 65 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2008). 2 English titles (1975). 1 FA Cup title (1946). 26,727 avg attendance in 2019-20 (20th best).

∙22nd place: Bradford Park Avenue FC (relegated to the 2nd division for 1921-22).
100 years later…22nd place [last place] in National League-North (6th level)/would have been relegated to the 7th level but were reprieved due to Coronavirus pandemic rendering all English leagues below the 6th level to be null & void for 2019-20 [ie, relegations below 6th level were cancelled] (~#137 in league pyramid). 3 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 1921). 484 avg attendance in 2019-20 (180th best in English football).

+1920-21 Second Division promoted clubs:
∙1st place in Second Division in 1920-21: Birmingham FC/promoted to First Division for 1921-22. (Note: the name Birmingham City FC was adopted in 1943).
100 years later…20th place in EFL Championship in 2019-20 (#40 in league pyramid). 57 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2011). 20,412 avg attendance in 2019-20 (29th best).

∙2nd place in Second Division in 1920-21: Cardiff City FC/promoted to First Division for 1921-22 [becoming the first Welsh club to play in the English 1st division].
100 years later…5th place in EFL Championship in 2019-20/lost in play-offs semifinals (#25 in league pyramid). 17 seasons in the 1st division (relegated out in 2019). 1 FA Cup title (1927 [the only Welsh club to win an FA Cup title]). 22,822 avg attendance in 2019-20 (25th best).

    Part 6: Historic Counties of England before the late 20th century boundary-changes…

Note: this interactive map was very helpful in making my 1920-21 map here, and I imagine many of you would enjoy looking through it…Wikishire.co.uk/interactive map of Historic Counties of the British Isles .

Basically, everything, County-wise, was much more convoluted back then. ‘Back then’ generally meaning before 1975, but with London, before 1965…and specifically meaning before the changes made in April 1974 which were the result of The Local Government Act of 1972. That Act of Parliament led to the creation of such things as Greater Manchester and the West Midlands (both of which were officially instituted in April 1974). Before this, the outlying areas of England’s three biggest cities – London, Birmingham, and Manchester – were split among different County jurisdictions. As were the outlying areas around Liverpool, and also Newcastle.

One might ask why were the Historic Counties were done away with circa 1972-74? The answer is that they were changed to streamline administrative purposes. For example, imagine today having all of sprawling urban London under six different local government jurisdictions (County of London/Essex/Kent/Surrey/Middlesex/Hertfordshire). Or having all of urban Birmingham being under three separate jurisdictions (Warwickshire/Staffordshire/Worcestershire). In the major cities of Great Britain, the County borders had been established long before the patterns of urban development had become apparent. The changes made between 1965 and 1975 were aimed at combining the urban areas into single jurisdictions. ‘The Local Government Act 1972 sought generally to unite conurbations within a single county, while retaining the historic county boundaries as far as was practicable.’ {-excerpt from Historic counties of England/1965 and 1974 (en.wikipedia.org).

But to many people, eradicating the Historic Counties has left them rootless. -Britons Feeling Rootless After Changes to England’s Historic Counties (by Simon Worrall from November 2014 at nationalgeographic.com.

You could say that the Historic Counties in Britain functioned in the same way as the states in the United States of America. Each – in both cases – have unique characteristics, and each give residents there an identity. Imagine the uproar if two small American states like Connecticut and Rhode Island were merged. Or if New Jersey was abolished and diced up to better suit the local governments of New York City and Philadelphia. Or if north-western Indiana was grafted onto Illinois, to make the city of Chicago’s government more streamlined. No way those things would go down well. However, in Britain they did do things like that.

Introduction of the 6 Metropolitan Counties…
The changes made in county borders from 1965 through 1974 saw the introduction of a separate category of County: the Metropolitan county. There are 6 Metropolitan counties…Greater London, Greater Manchester, the West Midlands (ie, greater Birmingham including Wolverhampton and Coventry), Tyne and Wear (greater Newcastle including Sunderland, as well as Gateshead and South Shields), Merseyside (greater Liverpool including St Helens and the Wirral Peninsula, as well as Southport), West Yorkshire (greater Leeds including Bradford, Huddersfield, and Halifax), and South Yorkshire (greater Sheffield including Barnsley, Rotherham, and Doncaster). {Here is a small chart showing the Metropolitan counties that were created in April 1974 (en.wikipedia.org).}

London (Greater London)…
Back before 1966, there was the County of London (1889-1965), but that was much smaller than the sprawling present-day Greater London. All of East London, for example, was still part of Essex (including where West Ham once played and now play, and where Leyton Orient still play).

And much of West London and North London was actually not ‘in London’, but was part of Middlesex (including where both Spurs and Brentford once played and where both now play). The County Middlesex does not officially exist anymore, but there are many who still keep the concept alive – just one example being the ‘County of Middlesex’ signs still standing in Brentford and Enfield.

Before 1966, a large section of South West London was still part of Surrey (including where Crystal Palace still play). Also, a large section of South East London was still part of Kent (such as where Charlton Athletic once played and still play).

Birmingham, and the introduction of the West Midlands…
Before 1975, the region surrounding Birmingham was part of three different counties. Pre-1975, most of Birmingham was in Warwickshire, but north-east parts of the already-sprawling greater Birmingham were in a narrow northeastern-pointing arm of Worcestershire. And the western part of the greater Birmingham region…from West Bromwich on towards Wolverhampton and the Black Country…that was all part of Staffordshire. The West Midlands did not exist before April 1974 – there was just the vague concept of the Midlands. The Midlands was well established culturally, as a distinct region of England, but before 1975 the Midlands was not established in any jurisdictional form. Warwickshire lost a great deal of territory after 1974: Warwickshire lost not only the city of Birmingham, but Warwickshire also lost the area just east of that (Sutton Coldfield, Solihull, and the city of Coventry). The Historic county of Warwickshire had a generally circular-shape, but now Warwickshire is an odd oblong-crescent shape. So, before the sweeping changes of April 1974, Aston Villa were situated in Warwickshire, while just 3 miles west of Villa Park there is West Bromwich Albion’s home ground of the Hawthorns. But the Hawthorns was situated in Staffordshire before 1975.

Other former Counties (like Middlesex)…
Back then, there were also some other counties (like Middlesex) that do not exist anymore – like Huntingdonshire, which was just south of Peterborough, and which eventually became part of Cambridgeshire. And there were two Counties that no longer exist up in the Northwest of England: Westmorland and Cumberland. These two former counties now comprise most of present-day Cumbria (including most of the the Lake District, and the city of Carlisle up near the Scottish border).

Lancashire (which back then included the cities of Liverpool and Manchester), and Cheshire…
A southern section of present-day Cumbria originally belonged to Lancashire – Lancashire had a significant detached enclave on the Furness Peninsula, on the north shore of Morecambe Bay, around Barrow-in-Furness (home of Barrow AFC). Before 1975, Lancashire was a great deal larger…the city of Manchester and the city of Liverpool were both part of Lancashire back then. But also, some parts of both cities’ outer areas were not ever in Lancashire and were actually part of Cheshire. Specifically: Warrington and Widnes were in Cheshire before 1975, and are now part of Merseyside; and Stockport, Altrincham, Hyde, Dukinfield, and Stalybridge were in Cheshire before, and are now part of Greater Manchester. Lancashire lost about two-fifths (40%) of its land after 1974 – around 700 square-miles. There is one section that Lancashire gained after 1974: some sparsely-populated area just north of Blackburn and Burnley, and just south-west of the Yorkshire Dales.

Manchester…
The Metropolitan county of Greater Manchester did not exist before April 1974. Manchester United, Manchester City, Bolton Wanderers, and Wigan Athletic (as well as Oldham and Rochdale) all played in, and still play in, areas that were once part of Lancashire. You can see a stubborn vestige of Lancashire-identification in Bolton Wanderers’ recent crest-change. Because their badge once again includes a Red Rose of Lancashire, despite the fact that the town of Bolton, and where the Wanderers now play (in Horwich, 6 miles west of Bolton) are both part of Greater Manchester.

Liverpool…
Liverpool was part of Lancashire before 1975; now Liverpool is part of the Metropolitan county of Merseyside. And Merseyside – that is to say Greater Liverpool including the Wirral Peninsula – that jurisdiction did not exist before 1975. The Wirral, where Tranmere Rovers play [in Birkenhead], was part of Cheshire back then. Merseyside stretches up the Lancashire coast a bit as well, to Southport.

Newcastle…
Up in the Northeast, back before April 1974, the Metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear did not exist. Newcastle was part of Northumberland. And Sunderland was part of County Durham, along with other parts of urban north-east Durham (Gateshead and South Shields). Without Newcastle, Northumberland (the northern-most county in England), is now one of the least-populated counties.

Yorkshire (the largest Historic county)…
The Historic County of Yorkshire was once, over a thousand years ago, a part of the Viking kingdom of Jórvík (Danish York, from 867 to 954). The Historic County of Yorkshire was one vast county that was subdivided into 3 Ridings, plus an obscure section west of the city of York called the Ainsty of York. (Riding is an Old Norse term – Threthingr – which means: one-third part of a thing.) Two of the three old Ridings of Yorkshire correspond – generally – with the modern-day (post-1974) counties. The North Riding of Yorkshire morphed into North Yorkshire, which is now a large mushroom-shaped county (with the city of York in the mushroom-shape’s stem). Also generally unchanged is the East Riding of Yorkshire (which includes Hull, there on the north shore of the Humber Estuary). But the West Riding of Yorkshire changed quite a bit after 1974…the West Riding of Yorkshire, after 1974, was basically divided into two. Now there is West Yorkshire, which has the city of Leeds, and just west of that, the city of Bradford, as well as Huddersfield and Halifax towards the west, and then to the border at the Pennine Chain. (The Penninnes are the low mountain range that has traditionally separated Yorkshire from Lancashire and Northwest England.) And now there is South Yorkshire, which was also created in April 1974, and which is where Sheffield, as well as Barnsley, Rotherham, and Doncaster, are located. As mentioned at the top of this section, the counties of West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire are two of the 6 counties that are designated as Metropolitan counties.

With the term ‘Yorkshire’, one can perhaps best see how, in some ways, the old Historic county set-up never really went away. I say this because people from there will usually simply describe themselves as ‘from Yorkshire’, not differentiating which of the four modern-day Yorkshire counties they are actually from.
___
Thanks to all at the following links…
Sources:
Football League…
-English Football League (en.wikipedia.org).
-A complete history of the Football League, of which Derby County were a founder member (dcfc.co.uk).
-1920-21 Football League (en.wikipedia.org).
-The 1920-21 English Football League First Division…Table Standings; Top 10 Goal Scorers (melaman2.com). [Note: only source I could find for Top Scorers in 1920-21.]
-Historical Kits.co.uk…English_Football_League [kits, by club, through the years].
-European Football Statistics.co.uk…[Attendance] {To access, click on England; click on 1920-21.}
-File:England location map.svg (en.wikipedia.org).
-Map of the Thames River Basin District (gre.ac.uk).
Historic Counties of England (and Wales)…
-Historic Counties of England (en.wikipedia.org).
-Wikishire.co.uk/map…https://wikishire.co.uk/map/#/centre=52.917,-4.500/zoom=7 [interactive map] (wikishire.co.uk/map).
-County of London [1889-1965] [Before the much larger Greater London was instituted in 1965, there was the County of London (1889-1965).] (en.wikipedia.org).
-Know Your London.wordpress.com…London – The Counties (knowyourlondon.wordpress.com from Sept. 2017).
-Middlesex County Press.com…But Where Exactly is it Again? (middlesexcountypress.com).
-File:Middlesex 1851 and 1911.png [Boundaries of former County of Middlesex.] (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Historic Surrey [With map showing parts of the County of Surrey lost & gained after 1965.] (exploringsurreyspast.org.uk).
-Gloucestershire…File:Gloucestershire_1832_Map [Shows Bristol as part of Gloucestershire.] (en.wikipedia.org/[History of Gloucestershire]).
-File:Yorkshire_Wapentakes.svg [Ainsty of York, a region of the Historic County of Yorkshire which was a separate jurisdiction from the Three Ridings of Yorkshire.] (wikishire.co.uk).
-1911 map of the County of Berkshire [Shows Berkshire when it was a larger County, and before it included Slough.](upload.wikimedia.org).
-Historic Counties of Wales (en.wikipedia.org).
Blank maps…
-File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (en.wikipedia.org).
-File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg (en.wikipedia.org).
[Note: I erased the present-day County boundaries for the main map, drawing in Historical County boundaries {see links above}; I used both the present-day Greater London boundary and the present-day London Borough boundaries as an under-layer backdrop for the London map.]
Populations of cities…
List of towns and cities in England by historical population (en.wikipedia.org).

Photo and image credits on map page…
Burnley section:
Aerial photo of Turf Moor (1929) by unknown photographer for Burnley Express via en.wikipedia.org. 1920-21 Burnley FC official programme banner [April 1921], from clarets-mad.co.uk. Team photo of Burnley FC (1922) [1922 Chums trading card], via doingthe92.com/["Chums" football teams (1922)]. Joe Armstrong [1921], unattributed at vintagefootballers.com. John Haworth, from burnleyfootballclub.com. Burnley FC team photo (1921), unattributed at clarets-mad.co.uk. Burnley 1920-21 kit, illustration by historicalkits.co.uk. Jerry Dawson [1922 Sport and Adventure Famous Footballers trading card], from doingthe92.com.
Tommy Boyle [Captain], (1922 Gem trading card) from doingthe92.com/[The Gem Library "Special Real Photo" (1922)]. Bob Kelly (1922 trading card by DC Thomson), from doingthe92.com/[DC Thomson "British Team of Footballers" (1922)]. Joe Armstrong [1921], unattributed at vintagefootballers.com.

Section for Top scorers in 1920-21 First Division:
Data: The 1920-21 English Football League First Division…Table Standings; Top 10 Goal Scorers (melaman2.com). [Note: this was the only source I could find for an actual list of the Top Scorers in 1920-21.]
Joe Smith (Bolton), unattributed at twitter.com/[@MemorabiliaMal. Tommy Browell (Man City), 1922 Gem trading card from doingthe92.com/[The Gem Library "Special Real Photo" (1922)]. Charlie Buchan (Sunderland), colorized photo unattributed at Sunderland message board site at readytogo.net. Billy Walker (Aston Villa), 1923 trading card from doingthe92.com/[The Gem Library "Autographed Action Series" (1923)]. George Elliott (Middlesbrough), 1914 colorized photo from an unattributed trading card at vintagefootballers.com.

Base maps:
both are by Nilfanion…
-File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (en.wikipedia.org).
-File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg (en.wikipedia.org).

-Illustrations of Kits:
Historical Kits.co.ukEnglish_Football_League [kits, by club, through the years].
-1920-21 Football League attendance figures from european-football-statistics.co.uk/[1921 England Attendance].

Legend for Map & the Banner at foot of map:
-Compass rose from de.123rf.com.
-Banner Segments from these sources: The Scroll [from cover of 1920-21 FA Cup Final programme] via co.pinterest.com; Text and the old-style Ball image are from 10footballs.com/the-programmes-192122-2/.

July 16, 2020

2019-20 National League (England/5th division): Monochrome Location-map w/ final standings (by PPG), featuring the one automatically promoted club (Barrow AFC) and the 6 play-off teams, and with Seasons in 5th division & Seasons in the Football League listed by club./+Illustrations for the 3 automatically promoted clubs from the 3 National Leagues (Barrow AFC from the National League; King’s Lynn Town from the National League-North; Wealdstone from the National League-South).

Filed under: >2019-20 English Football,Eng-5th level — admin @ 10:44 am

2019-20_national-league_aka-conference_map_6-play-off-teams_and-1-promoted-team-barrow-afc_w-2020-attendances_all-time-5th-div-seasons-all-time-football-league-seasons_post_c_.gif
2019-20 National League (England/5th division): Monochrome Location-map w/ final table (by PPG), featuring the automatically promoted club (Barrow AFC) & the 6 play-off teams, with Seasons in 5th division, Seasons in the Football League & Highest Placement, by club



By Bill Turianski on the 16th of July 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

The National League (5th division) Play-offs start tomorrow [Friday 17 July 2020]:
Quarterfinal matches -
-Friday 17 July,
QF1: Boreham Wood v FC Halifax Town at Meadow Park in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire.
-Saturday 18 July,
QF2: Yeovil Town v Barnet at Huish Park in Yeovil, Somerset.
Semifinal matches -
-Saturday 25 July,
Harrogate Town v winner of QF-1 (Boreham Wood / Halifax Town) at Wetherby Road in Harrogate, North Yorkshire.
-late Saturday 25 July,
Notts County v winner of QF-2 (Yeovil Town / Barnet) at Meadow Lane in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire.
Final -
at Wembley Stadium, London, the time and date to be determined. {2019-20 National League table with PPG; Play-offs bracket.}

This map is something new I am trying out. The map shows the badges of most of the clubs in the 5th division in all-grey-tone (monochrome) form, while the one automatically-promoted club (Barrow AFC), and the 6 play-off teams, are shown in regular full-color form. The chart alongside the map is also new. It shows the final table in abbreviated form, with 4 things: Games Played (G Pld), Goal difference, Points, and Points Per Game (PPG). The chart also lists, for each club, 2019-20 average attendance, plus: Seasons played in the 5th Division, and Seasons played in the Football League (with All-time Highest League Placement noted).

There is one more detail shown in the chart: green or red boxes…A green box for automatic promotion (Barrow); a pale green box for the play-off spots (Harrogate Town, Notts County, Yeovil Town, Boreham Wood, FC Halifax Town, Barnet); and a pale red box for the 3 clubs that were relegated out of the 5th division this season (Ebbsfleet United, AFC Fylde, Chorley).

Note: The reason why there were 3 teams relegated out of the 5th division this season, and not 4, is because of the knock-on effect that the dissolution of the former 3rd-division side Bury FC has had on the league pyramid. With Bury FC now defunct, the 3rd tier played the 2019-20 season as a 23-team league, meaning one less team (3 instead of 4 teams) would be relegated down to the 4th tier, come the end of the season. Likewise, the total relegated teams in the 4th tier was be diminished by one. There will be just one team relegated out of the Football League and into the 5th division: that club is Stevenage. As for 5th division clubs, the big beneficiary of this was Maidenhead United of Berkshire, who beat out Ebbsfleet United by a mere 0.002 PPG {table with three-decimal-point PPG}, so Maidenhead finished in 21st place, and Maidenhead would have been the fourth team relegated if Bury FC had survived.



Below are illustrated articles for:
The one automatically promoted club from the 5th division (Barrow AFC from the 2019-20 National League),
as well as the single automatically-promoted clubs from each of the 6th-level leagues (King’s Lynn Town from the 2019-20 National League North; Wealdstone from the 2019-20 National League South).

    The one club automatically promoted from the 5th Division in 2019-20…Barrow AFC, who return to the Football League after 48 years, joining EFL League Two for 2020-21

Barrow AFC, established 1901, are from Barrow-in-Furness, in Cumbria. Barrow wear Blue-with-White, and are known as the Bluebirds. They have played at their Holker Street ground since 1908.

The population of Barrow is around 56,000 {2011 figure}. Barrow-in-Furness is located, by road, 88 miles (142 km) SW of Carlisle. Barrow-in-Furness is located, by road, 106 miles (171 km) NNW of Liverpool. Barrow-in-Furness is located, by road, 297 miles (479 km) NE of central London.

Barrow used to be a steel city, but the Barrow Hematite Steel Company closed shop in 1963. Today, Barrow’s biggest economic driver is ship and submarine construction, and Barrow has been involved in submarine construction for around 150 years. This is why Barrow AFC have the image a submarine on their badge (see photos, captions and Barrow’s badge, in the illustration further below). BAE Systems Submarines, in Barrow, has produced virtually all Royal Navy submarines, since 1901. BAE Systems is the single largest employer in Barrow, with around 9,500 employees. The shipyard there is the largest, by workforce, in the UK. (In the illustration further below, you can see an Astute-class submarine built in Barrow.)

Barrow AFC are pretty isolated up in there on the Furness Peninsula. And in that sense they are similar to fellow Cumbrians Carlisle United, as well as the far southwestern-based Plymouth Argyle, in that their geographic isolation is a handicap – both in terms of sheer travel-time and cost, as well as in the difficulty of attracting top talent. And their geographic isolation most likely contributed to them being voted out of the Football League 48 years ago (see 6 paragraphs below).

The town of Barrow, and the Furness Peninsula which it is located on, were historically part of Lancashire (pre-1975). Barrow-in-Furness was situated in a detached and north-western enclave of the historic county of Lancashire, as you can see in a map I made, below, which shows the locations of all 17 of the Football League clubs from Lancashire in 1921-22, with the borders of the Historic Counties shown (including pre-1975 borders of Lancashire).

historic-county-of-lancashire_the-18-football-league-clubs_from-lancashire_1921-22_with-historic-counties_pre-1975-borders_h_.gif
Credits above – Map by Bill Turianski, July 2020. Original base map by Nilfanion at File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (en.wikipedia.org). Data of historic counties’ borders from wikishire.co.uk (an interactive map of the [Historic] counties of the British Isles). Information from Historic counties of England (en.wikipedia.org). Information from 1921-22 Football League (en.wikipedia.org).

Before joining the Football League in 1921, Barrow AFC played in the Lancashire Combination (from 1903 to 1921). Barrow won the Lancashire Combination in 1920-21. The following season of 1921-22, Barrow AFC, along with 21 other northern clubs, joined the Football League. This was when the Football League expanded from 66 teams to 88 teams, turning the 3rd tier into a two-league regional North-and-South set-up. (The Football League’s regional Third-Division-North-/-Third-Division-South set-up lasted 28 seasons, from 1921-22 to 1957-58, and was replaced by a national Third Division and a national Fourth Division in 1958-59.)

Barrow AFC spent 44 seasons in the Football League (1921 to 1972). The 44 seasons Barrow spent in the League back then is most notable for the club’s lack of success. The club remained in the 3rd Division North until 1958, when Barrow finished in 18th place and were one of 12 teams in the Third Division North to be relegated to the new national Fourth Division for 1958-59 {1957-58 Football League Third Division North; 1958-59 Football League Fourth Division}.

Barrow were mostly a bottom-half of the table 4th tier side from 1959 on into the mid-1960s, and they faced re-election four times in this period, each time avoiding the fate of being voted out of the League. However, in 1966-67, Barrow finally saw an upturn in performance, and finished in 3rd place, winning automatic promotion to the Third Division. This was Barrow’s only Football League promotion. The following season of 1967-68 saw Barrow reach 8th place in the 3rd division – this is the all-time highest league placement by Barrow AFC (a League-placement of #52 in the 92-team Football League). Barrow drew 6,000 per game in their first season in the 3rd division {european-football-statistics.co.uk/[Eng, 1968]}. But in the next season of 1969-70 – their third season in the 3rd division – Barrow fell back down to the 4th tier, with a 23rd-place finish. And it got worse.

At this time (the late 1960s and early 1970s), Barrow’s Holker Street ground had been re-purposed to accommodate a speedway track. This was done to generate more income for the club. Introducing the speedway at Holker Street coincided with a severe downturn in the team’s on-field performance. After relegation back to the 4th tier in 1970, Barrow finished dead last in the League in 1971, and faced re-election. They survived re-election in 1971. But then Barrow finished poorly again in 1971-72 (in 22nd place), drawing only 2,300 (second-worst attendance in the Football League {european-football-statistics.co.uk/[Eng, 1972]}. So once again Barrow faced re-election, and this time, Barrow were voted out of the Football League, being replaced by the then-recent FA-Cup-Giant-killers Hereford United. As it says in Barrow AFC’s Wikipedia page, ‘Though the reasons for not being re-elected were many, three factors have been highlighted: Barrow’s geographic isolation, Hereford United’s FA Cup victory against Newcastle United, and the decision of the Barrow board to introduce a speedway track around pitch at Holker Street, as a means of off-setting financial difficulties.’ The simple fact of the matter was that Hereford’s upset win over Newcastle in the 1971-72 FA Cup was such a momentous thing that it became almost inevitable that Hereford would be able to successfully apply for League membership. As Two Hundred Percent blog’s Ian King said in a recent article on Barrow, ‘Ultimately, though, it’s likely that it was felt that someone had to make way for Hereford United, and that Barrow were the sacrificial lambs.’ {-excerpt from Barrow AFC’s Long Road Back, by Ian King at twohundredpercent.net}.



After being voted out of the Football League, Barrow played in the Northern Premier League (from 1972-78). First of all, they had to promise to get rid of the speedway track at Holker Street, and it was gone by 1974. (That’s how bad a speedway track is, when you put one in a football ground…the venerable non-League Northern League would not even allow it.)

Then in 1978-79, Barrow were a founding member of the Alliance Premier League. The Alliance Premier League was the first time non-League football had organized a national non-League division…the 5th division in effect. (At first, there was no automatic promotion to the Football League. But after 8 years, automatic promotion between the 5th division and the Football League 4th Division was instituted, in 1986-87. The Alliance Premier League changed its name to the Conference in 1986, and then to the National League in 2015.)

Since being a founding member of the 5th division, Barrow has suffered four separate relegations and managed four separate promotions between the 5th and 6th levels. Barrow won promotion back to the 5th tier once again in 2015, but almost fell back to the 6th tier yet again in 2018…they were one game away from relegation that year, and if Woking had won on the last day of the season, Barrow would have been relegated. Barrow finished one point above the drop.

In June 2018, ex-Chesterfield and ex-Blackpool centreback Ian Evatt took over as manager of Barrow. Barrow had finished in 20th place in 2017-18, and there were few who saw much hope for any sort of quick turn-around, seeing as how Ian Evatt had inherited a squad that was down to just 7 players, and the team had a budget that was among the lowest in the 5th tier. Also in 2018-19, there was an ownership change at Barrow, with chief sponsor Paul Hornby taking over. Hornby first needed to assemble a board of directors and investors to just get to the end of the season. Then, with three other locally-born businessmen, Hornby put in 90% of a £500,000 investment (the final 10% came from local supporters, The Bluebirds Trust). And so things stabilised, and Ian Evatt guided Barrow to a respectable 10-place improvement, finishing the 2018-19 National League season in 10th place.

Ian Evatt had Barrow playing a rather attractive, ball-on-the-floor style of possession-based football. When Evatt was at Blackpool playing centreback under manager Ian Holloway, their style of play was to always bring the ball up from the back through crisp passing. In other words, Blackpool in the League Championship (in 2009-10) and then in the Premier League (in 2010-11) played the opposite of Route One football. Of course they were relegated from the Premier League, but it cannot be denied that the season before, Blackpool won the 2010 Championship play-offs playing possession-based football, and became the smallest-ever club (as measured by average attendance) to win promotion to the Premier League.

Evatt brought this mind-set to Barrow. At times, Barrow under Evatt were playing 3-4-1-2, with overlapping wingers moving between defensive and attacking positions, as the run of play dictated. Barrow supporters started calling the squad’s flowing style of play Barra-celona. It was a style of play that could exhaust a squad, but Evatt’s players were up to the task.

In 2019-20, Barrow started strong, and were in 1st pace by the 16th of November. By the new year, Barrow still held first place, being closely chased by Harrogate Town, Halifax Town, Yeovil, and Notts County. Barrow were powered by the midfield play of John Rooney (Wayne Rooney’s younger brother), and by the goals FW Scott Quigley. John Rooney scored 17 goals and made 10 assists in 37 appearances, and was voted Player of the Year by Barrow fans. Scott Quigley scored 20 goals in 35 appearances, and was the National League’s top-scorer. Winger/FW Dior Angus contributed 10 goals 36 appearances. (You can see photos of the three, further below). Barrow were averaging 2,010 per game, a 635-per game increase from the previous season. (Barrow’s last 6 season finishes and their average attendance figures can be seen in the illustration below, in a caption next to the photo of Ian Evatt.)

When the league stopped play on the 16th of March due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Barrow had a four point lead on Harrogate Town (both having played 37 games [or 80% of the season]). On 22 April, the 24 National League clubs voted to cancel the season due to the coronavirus. On 17 June, the National League clubs voted to decide the 2019-20 season by Points Per Game (PPG). This meant Barrow AFC were champions of the 5th division, and would gain automatic promotion (back) to the Football League.

Barrow AFC were voted out of the Football League 48 years ago. They probably didn’t deserve to get voted out of the League in 1972, and took nearly a half-century for them to get back in. Barrow have now returned to the Football League, winning promotion in the modern era, where relegation elections are a thing of the past. But it seems only fitting that it actually took a vote to get Barrow back into the League.

Barrow AFC – winner of the 5th division (the 2019-20 National League), and promoted to the Football League’s League Two, for the 2020-21 season
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Photo and Image credits above -2019-20 Barrow AFC kits (illustration), from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrow_A.F.C. Barrow Docks and shipbuilding facility, photo by Paul White – UK Industries/Alamay Stock Photo via heritagefund.org.uk. Devonshire Dock Hall with Astute submarine it built, photo from BAE Systems Barrow via in-cumbria.com. 2 photos of Main Stand (Brian Arrowsmith Stand) at Holker Street, 1st photo from facebook.com/[unofficialbarrowafc]; 2nd photo from euro.stades.ch/[Barrow-Holker]. Ray Wilkie Popular Side Stand from the Holker End, photo by Mark Fletcher / MI News & Sports at twitter.com/[@markfletcher50]. Ray Wilkie Popular Side Stand, fully occupied on a cold and rainy night: photo from barrowafc.com. Ian Evatt, photo by Getty Images via dailymail.co.uk/sport. Scott Quigley, photo by Ian Allington at sportfurness.co.uk/[barrow-afc-2019-20-in-pictures]. Dior Angus, photo by Ian Allington at sportfurness.co.uk/[barrow-afc-2019-20-in-pictures]. John Rooney, photo by Rex Features via bbc.com/sport. Barrow fans with banner, photo by Ian Allington at sportfurness.co.uk/[barrow-afc-2019-20-in-pictures].

[Note: both segments below originally appeared in September 2019, in this post:
The 6th division in England: 2019-20 [Non-League] National League North & National League South (2 separate 22-team leagues, at the same level) – map, with 18/19-attendances-&-finishes chart./+Brief profiles of the two leagues’ leaders as of 9 Sept. 2019: King’s Lynn Town FC, and Wealdstone FC.]

    The two clubs automatically promoted from the 6th Tier in 2019-20…
    (King’s Lynn Town, winners of the National League North & Wealdstone, winners of the National League South)

King’s Lynn Town…back-to-back promotions put the Norfolk side into the 5th division for 2020-21.
King’s Lynn Town are from King’s Lynn, Norfolk (population 44,000), on Norfolk’s north coast, within the marshy lowland estuary called the Wash. The town of King’s Lynn is situated, by road, about 32 miles (52 km) west of Norwich. King’s Lynn Town wear Blue-jerseys-with-Yellow pants, and have the nickname of the Linnets. The club plays at the Walks Stadium, as did their predecessor-club. The club was established in 2010, as the Phoenix-club of King’s Lynn FC (1879-2009).

For their debut season 11 years ago, King’s Lynn Town were placed in the 9th level, in the United Counties League; they then won 2 promotions in 3 seasons…They won promotion to the 8th level in their second season (2011-12). And then they won promotion to the Northern Premier the following season of 2011-12. But then King’s Lynn Town languished for 7 seasons in the 7th tier. Midway through that spell, the club was transferred to the Southern League (in 2015-16). When the 7th level expanded from 3 to 4 leagues in 2017-18, King’s Lynn Town were placed in the Southern Premier-Central. The club finally won promotion to the 6th tier as a super-play-offs winner in 2019, beating Stratford Town and Alvechurch, en route to a 3-2 victory over Warrrington Town in the 7th-level’s super play-off final. When King’s Lynn Town made it to the 6th division, they had reached the level which was the highest point that the original club had achieved (back in 2008-09). Now, with promotion for the first time to the 5th division, King’s Lynn Town have won 4 promotions in eleven years.

In 2019-20, King’s Lynn Town started well, and had gained the top spot in the National League North in September. And the Linnets held the lead past the New Year. But York City supplanted them at the top in February. By mid-March, when the leagues were halted due to the coronavirus pandemic, York City held a 2 point lead on King’s Lynn Town. However, King’s Lynn had two games in hand. And that was crucial, because, in June, it was voted to base all three of the National Leagues final standings on Points Per Game. That handed the title to King’s Lynn Town…via PPG.

King’s Lynn Town doubled their average attendance….
King’s Lynn Town, who drew 712 per game in 2018-19, doubled their crowd-size in 2019-20, to 1,417 per game. That was the 115th-best average attendance in the English leagues system this season in 2019-20. {See it on a map, here, which shows all clubs in England (and Wales) which drew over 1-K-per-game in 2019-20.}

King’s Lynn Town: 4 promotions in the club’s 11 seasons…
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Photo and Image credits above – Aerial shot [satellite image], screenshot from bing.com/maps. Main Stand, photo by Owen Pavey at footballgroundguide.com/king-lynn-town-the-walks.
Ian Culverhouse, photo by Geoff Moore at edp24.co.uk/sport. Adam Marriott, photo by Matthew Usher at edp24.co.uk/sport. Winning goal celebration of King’s Lynn Town, versus York City [18 Jan 2020]: screenshot of video uploaded by King’s Lynn Town TV at youtube.com.

Wealdstone win the National League South, to return to the 5th division after 32 years.
Wealdstone FC are from Ruislip, which is in NW Greater London (and was formerly situated in Middlesex). Wealdstone wear Royal-Blue-with-White-and-Yellow, and have two nicknames: the Stones, and the Royals. (In 2019-20, Wealdstone wore striking blue-and-yellow-striped jerseys.) Wealdstone were a founding member of the the 5th division in 1979-80 [as part of the first season of the Alliance Premier League, which was the precursor to the Conference National and then the National League]. The clubs’ greatest moment came in 1984-85, when Wealdstone not only won the Alliance Premier, but also won the FA Trophy: thus becoming the first club to ever win the non-League Double (see photos and caption below). The only problem was that Wealdstone were a couple years ahead of their time, because at that point, there was no automatic promotion – yet – between the 5th division and the Football League. That was instituted a mere two years later, in 1986-87. So Wealdstone, failing to grab the attention of the old-boys-club which kept vast amounts of worthy, title-winning non-League clubs out of the Football League for decades, remained in non-League football. (In the 29 seasons from when the Football League Fourth Division was formed, in 1958-59, to 1985-86 [which was the last season in the Football League with no automatic relegation out of the League], only three clubs ever got voted out of the Football League.)

And then, three years later, Wealdstone got relegated out of the 5th division, in 1987-88. Then it got worse: financial problems, in 1991, saw them lose their Lower Mead ground. Wealdstone were homeless for 17 years, first renting at Watford’s Vicarage Road, then in 1993 Wealdstone were renting at Yeading FC’s ground. Then in 1995 Wealdstone were renting at Edgeware FC’s ground. Then in 2005, Wealdstone were renting at Northwood FC’s ground. Finally, in 2008-09, Wealdstone acquired Ruislip Sports and Social club, and moved into Ruislip Manor’s Grosvenor Vale ground. Five seasons later, in 2013-14, Wealdstone won the Isthmian Premier, by 11 points over Kingstonian. Since being in the 6th tier (Conference South/National League-South), that is to say, since 2014-15, Wealdstone have finished in 12th, then in 11th, then in 8th, then in 13th, and last season, in 7th. In 2018-19, Wealdstone drew 882 per game. They were the lowest-placed team qualifying for the play-offs in 2018-19, and advanced past Bath City in the quarter-final, but then fell to eventually-promoted Woking in the semi-finals.

In 2019-20, Wealdstone started strong, and were in first place by September, drawing 900 per game. They never relinquished the lead, and by winter Wealdstone were drawing above 1-K-per-game for most of their home matches. When league play was stopped in mid-March due to the coronavirus pandemic, Wealdstone had a 3 point lead on Havant & Waterlooville (with a game in hand). Wealdstone ended up averaging 1,031 per game, being one of the 43 non-League clubs that drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20.

Now Wealdstone, a founding member of the 5th division, will return to the 5th tier after 38 seasons in the 6th and 7th divisions.
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Photo and Image credits above – Photo from the 11th of May 1985: 1984-85 Alliance Premier champions Wealdstone celebrating their 1985 FA Trophy win over Boston United (2-1), earning them them first ever non-League Double (5th division title & cup-win): photo unattributed at mylondon.news/sport. Photo of enamel pin of Wealdstone’s historic non-League Double of 1985: from wfcmegastore.co.uk. Aerial shot of Grosvenor Vale: screenshot of satellite image from bing.com/maps. Interior shot of Grosvenor Vale: photo by Ryan at groundhoppingwithryan.blogspot.com/2017/07/wealdstone-fc-grosvenor-vale.
Ross Lafayette, photo by Mont Image Media via harrowtimes.co.uk/sport. Dennon Lewis, photo Mont Image Media via kilburntimes.co.uk/sport. Dean Brennan, photo by Mont Image Media via kilburntimes.co.uk/sport. 8 February 2020, Wealdstone players celebrate a goal, when Wealdstone beat Bilericay Town 3-0 and drew a record crowd of 1,356 at Grosvenor Vale, photo from wealdstone-fc.com.
___
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Football Club History Database, BARROW.
-National League (English football) (en.wikipedia.org).
-2019-20 National League (en.wikipedia.org).
-Thanks to Nilfanion…Blank map of UK historic counties, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:United Kingdom police areas map.svg (commons.wikimedia.org). Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
Attendance figures…
-Non-League Matters.

July 4, 2020

1929 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: Philadelphia Athletics. With illustrated article: The 1929 and 1930 Philadelphia Athletics: the most overlooked team in baseball history.

Filed under: Baseball,Baseball: 1929 MLB season,Retro maps — admin @ 12:00 pm

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1929 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: Philadelphia Athletics



By Bill Turianski on the 4th of July 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

Links…
Sources…
-Baseball-Reference.com, 1929 AL season; 1929 NL season.
-SportsLogos.net.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen), exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/database.htm.
-Most logos: sportlogos.net.
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures), biggestuscities.com/1920.
-Lost in History [the 1929-31 Philadelphia Athletics] (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at si.com/[vault]).
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at sabr.org).

Links to the other 4 maps in this category (MLB retro maps from the 1920s)…
-1925 MLB map (Pittsburgh Pirates, champions; w/ an article on MLB attendance, by team, circa the 1920s).
-1926 MLB map (St. Louis Cardinals, champions; w/ a chart of 1920s US city populations & cities with MLB teams).
-1927 MLB map (New York Yankees, champions; w/ an illustrated article on the 1927 NY Yankees).
-1928 MLB map (New York Yankees, champions; w/ an illustrated article on the 1928 NY Yankees).

    The 1929 and 1930 Philadelphia Athletics: the most overlooked team in baseball history

The 1927 and 1928 New York Yankees are remembered as one of the greatest, if not the greatest, teams of all time. But in 1929, the Yankees finished a distant 18 games behind the Philadelphia Athletics of owner-and-manager Connie Mack. The Yankees also failed to win the AL pennant in the next two seasons of 1930 and ’31. So, not to take anything away from the “Murderer’s Row” Yankees, but something is going on here that needs to be put into perspective. Let me ask you this…if the 1927 and ’28 Yankees, led of course by Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig, were the greatest team of all time, then why didn’t the Yankees of the late-1920s-and-early-1930s win more World Series titles? Because Gehrig was still young and healthy, and Ruth was still in his prime.

It may surprise some to know that the Yankees of Ruth and Gehrig won only 4 World Series titles in the 12 seasons the two played together (in 1923, in 1927, in 1928, and in 1932). And that first Yankee title in 1923 was won when Gehrig wasn’t even a starter. So what stood in the way of the “Murderer’s Row” Yankees from winning more titles? The answer is the Philadelphia Athletics, who won 3 straight American League pennants, from 1929 to 1931. The Yankees finished 18 games behind the A’s in 1929. Then the Yankees finished 16 games behind the A’s in 1930. Then the Yankees finished 13.5 games behind the A’s in 1931. Heck, in 1930, the Yankees didn’t even finish in 2nd place (the Washington Senators did).

There are a couple of reasons why the dominant 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics are so forgotten. First of all, the 1929-30 Philadelphia A’s have always been overshadowed by the 1927 and ’28 New York Yankees, and the long-ball legacy of the Ruth-&-Gehrig-led Bronx Bombers. And the second reason? It also has to do with New York…the largely New York-based sports media that basically ignored how great the 1929 (and 1930) Philadelphia Athletics actually were. As famed sportswriter Shirley Povich said, “The A’s were victims of the Yankee mystique. Perhaps the 1927 Yankees were the greatest team of all time. But if there was a close second, perhaps an equal, it was those A’s. They are the most overlooked team in baseball.”

The core of the Philadelphia Athletics in 1929 and ’30 was four Hall of Fame players…the slugging threesome of outfielder Al Simmons, catcher Mickey Cochrane, and 1st baseman Jimmie Foxx, plus pitcher Lefty Grove. Grove was one of the hardest-throwing left-handers ever (so said another great flamethrower, Walter Johnson). Lefty Grove had the best ERA in the AL for 4 straight seasons (1929-32). In 2001, Lefty Grove was named the second-best pitcher of all time, by Sabermetrics-founder Bill James. This foursome all came together in a 2-year span (1924-25), under Connie Mack (aka the Tall Tactician), who had a keen eye for talent, and an extensive scouting network.

Granted, if you want to talk pure hitting numbers, circa 1926 to 1932, the Philadelphia Athletics, for all their considerable offensive clout, were no match for New York Yankees. But no team was (and no team has been, ever). The Yankees absolutely dominated offensively between 1926 and 1932, leading not just the AL, but all of MLB, in scoring, in 6 of those 7 years. {You can see more on 1927 Yankees offensive stats in my 1927 map-&-article, here.} But home runs might get the headlines, but pitching and defense are ultimately the keys to a successful ball club. And the Philadelphia Athletics were a much more complete team, because their fielding – and especially their pitching – was superior. The 1929-to-’31 Athletics committed 137 less errors than the Yankees did in that same time period {see this, from en.wikipedia.org/[History of the Philadelphia Athletics]}. And the Athletics’ pitching from 1926 to 1932 was simply in a class by itself. In those 7 years, the Athletics had a total Pitching WAR (Wins After Replacement) that was 142.5, or a yearly average of 20.3 Pitching WAR. The Yankees in the same time period of 1926-32 had a total Pitching WAR of 65.2, or a yearly average of just 9.3 Pitching WAR. That is 11.0 less Pitching WAR, per year, from the Yankees, compared to the Athletics. It must be conceded that, in 1929 and ’30, the Yankees’ pitching staff was transitioning from the aged Herb Pennock and Waite Hoyt, to the young Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez, and the Yankees’ Pitching WAR in 1929 and ’30 was dead-last in the AL. But in all those 7 years (of 1926 to 1932), the Athletics pitchers had a better Pitching WAR than the Yankees in all but one season, in 1927, and that was by only 0.4 WAR {this data was found in this article at SABR.org, which is also linked to below}. It wasn’t just the A’s ace southpaw Lefty Grove, with a 7.1 Pitching WAR in 1929, that was so effective for the Philadelphia Athletics, there were two other standouts: Rube Walberg (6.1 Pitching WAR in 1929), and George Earnshaw (5.2 Pitching WAR in 1929). Grove and Walberg, using WAR, were among the 5 best pitchers in the AL from 1926 to ’32. From 1928 to ’32 (5 seasons) Lefty Grove had an astounding .795 winning percentage, with 128 wins and just 33 losses.

And there is this…“no New York Yankees team over any five-year period— not with Ruth, not with Gehrig, not with DiMaggio, not with Mantle, not with Jeter—ever had as high a winning percentage as the 1928–32 Philadelphia Athletics.” {Quotation from article by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte at SABR.org, which is linked to in the next paragraph below}. In the 5-year-span of 1928-32, the Philadelphia Athletics went 505-258 (.657). The Philadelphia A’s of that time-period also were the first ever team to win 100 games in a season for 3 consecutive seasons (1929-31).

Some flat out proclaim that Connie Mack’s Philadelphia Athletics of the late-’20s/early-’30s were simply better than the Yankees of Ruth & Gehrig…
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at sabr.org).

-Lost In History – From 1929 to 1931, the Philadelphia A’s were the best team in baseball, with four future Hall of Famers and a lineup that dominated Babe Ruth’s legendary Yankees. So why hasn’t anyone heard of them (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at si.com/[vault]).

(Note: the above article by William Nack at Sports Illustrated is an absolute gem, but there is one discrepancy that I need to point out. Nack says, in reference to the New York-vs-Philadelphia rivalry that “In the early days of the 20th century Philadelphia was the nation’s second city, and its teams’ most memorable clashes on baseball diamonds–first against the Giants and later against the Yankees–expressed the city’s aspiration to reclaim its place as the nation’s center.” However, Philadelphia was definitely not the nation’s second city back then…Chicago was. Philadelphia was supplanted by Chicago as the second-most populous city in the USA as early as the 1890s {see this, from en.wikipedia}. I have 1920 US city populations listed on the map-page (at the upper-left-corner of the map), and they are US Census Bureau figures. Here are the 1920 city population figures from the US Census Bureau…Top 3 US cities’ populations in 1920, New York City: 5.6 million; Chicago: 2.7 million; Philadelphia: 1.8 million {source: census.gov/[Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1920]. I know it is a small point, and it does not diminish the author’s underlying theme, namely, that Philadelphians had (and certainly still have) a deep-rooted chip on their shoulders about the preeminence of New York City, and Philadelphia’s lost status as the former largest city in the country.)

I think there is another reason why the 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics have been effectively banished from the collective memory of baseball fans. And that is this: the Philadelphia Athletics all but ceased to exist when the franchise moved to Kansas City, in 1955. Then the franchise moved again, 13 years later, in 1968, to Oakland, California. There was a diminished interest for the old team, back in Philly. After all, Philadelphia still had a major league ball club (the Phillies), so there never was that culture of loss and nostalgia that defines the Brooklyn Dodgers’ hallowed place in baseball history. There are many, many books written about the Brooklyn Dodgers. There are hardly any books written about the Philadelphia Athletics. Only the old-timers who had seen the greatness of the 1929-30 Athletics first-hand, there in Philadelphia, were keeping the flame alive, so to speak. The following generations of baseball fans in Philadelphia (and elsewhere) never were adequately told about the great Athletics teams in Philadelphia.

Even the Oakland A’s themselves have ignored, and still ignore, the greatness of the 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics…
If you go to an Oakland A’s game at the Oakland Coliseum, the only vestige you will see of the 5-time-World-Series-title-winning-/-9-time-AL-pennant-winning Philadelphia Athletics is in the present-day team’s uniforms: the Athletics’ Gothic-A cap-logo and their shoulder-patch elephant-logo (which dates to 1902). Because sadly, the Oakland A’s do not, in any way, acknowledge their own franchise’s 5 World Series titles that were won in Philadelphia. Here is the Oakland A’s World Series-titles banner outside their ballpark…it only shows the 4 World Series titles that the franchise won in Oakland. In other words, the Oakland Athletics themselves do not even acknowledge the greatness that was the Philadelphia Athletics.

And if you think no other transplanted MLB teams do this, well, here is what the Los Angeles Dodgers have at their Dodger Stadium…a set of banners showing every Dodgers World Series title, including the 1955 WS title won when the team was still in Brooklyn. Also at Dodger Stadium are giant murals of Dodgers MVPs and Cy Young winners [both of which include Brooklyn Dodgers players]. There is also a giant World Series-ring sculpture of the 1955 Brooklyn Dodgers there at Chavez Ravine {here /here is where I found the last three images: The Artful Dodgers (at bryanhg.wordpress.com).} Remember, this is an MLB franchise (the Dodgers) that is a class act, but still…all this tribute to their former location (in Brooklyn), and yet the Brooklyn Dodgers only won ONE TITLE. Meanwhile, the Philadelphia Athletics won 5 TITLES…and the Oakand A’s, the MLB franchise that originated as the Philadelphia Athletics 120 years ago, shows absolutely no tribute – at all – to where they came from (Philadelphia), and how great they were, way back then. Pathetic. Well, at least one fan in the Bay Area agrees with me…{Concept for a new banner at the Coliseum – 4/21/2020 (from the A’s Fan Radio site, asfanradio.com).

    The Philadelphia Athletics beat the Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1, to win the 1929 World Series

Before Game 1 (on October 8 1929 at Wrigley Field in Chicago), the big question was how the Cubs’ right-handed sluggers would fare against the Athletics’ ace pitcher, the southpaw Lefty Grove (Grove was one of the the best pitchers in 1929, with a 20-6 record, and an MLB-best 2.81 ERA). But Philadelphia Athletics manager Connie Mack shocked everyone, by keeping Lefty Grove on the bench, and starting the unheralded, and seemingly washed-up 35-year-old side-arm junk-ball hurler Howard Ehmke. (In August, after the A’s had clinched the Pennant, Ehmke had stayed in Philadelphia during an A’s late-season road trip, with the job of scouting out the Cubs hitters when they came to town to play the Philadelphia Phillies. So Connie Mack had planned on this surprise move for some time.)

The Cubs right-handed power hitters were nullified by the soft-throwing right-hander Ehmke. Howard Ehmke struck out 13 (a World Series record that stood for 24 years), and allowed just one unearned run. The Athletics’ slugger Jimmy Foxx broke the scoreless game in the 7th inning with a solo HR, and the Athletics won Game 1 by the score of 3 to 1. {Here is a nice 2:28 video on Howard Ehmke, Philadelphia Athletics Howard Ehmke, Hero of the 1929 World Series, uploaded by Philadelphia Sports History at youtube.com.}

In Game 2 (also at Wrigley Field in Chicago), the Athletics broke ahead with a 6-run lead, with HRs by Jimmy Foxx and Al Simmons. In the bottom of the 5th inning, A’s starter George Earnshaw got into trouble, and Connie Mack put Lefty Grove on, in relief. Grove pitched 4 and 1/3 innings of scoreless ball, and the Athletics won Game 2 by the score of 9 to 3. (And the A’s pitchers struck out 13 Cubs, again.)

In Game 3 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia), the Cubs beat the Athletics 3 to 1. The Cubs won on the strength of Pitcher Guy Bush, who allowed 1 run in 9 innings. The Cubs scored 3 runs in the 6th inning, with 2 runs driven in by a Kiki Cuyler single, and one run driven in by a Rogers Hornsby single. Athletics Pitcher George Earnshaw gave up just 1 earned run in 9 innings for the loss.

In Game 4 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia), Connie Mack stuck to his right-handed pitchers policy, starting another journeyman, Jack Quinn. But Quinn gave up 7 runs in 6 innings. The Cubs had an 8-0 lead when the Athletics came to bat in the 7th inning. 13 batters later, the Cubs found themselves trailing 10-8. {Via Old-Time Baseball Photos on twitter, here is a photo of Mule Haas sliding into home for his Inside-the-park HR, which pulled the A’s to within one run at 8-7.} That 10-8 score stood, as Lefty Grove pitched two innings of perfect relief to clinch the victory. The eight-run comeback by the Philadelphia Athletics on October 12, 1929 is still the greatest comeback in MLB post-season history. In the illustration below, you can see a batter-by-batter re-cap of the legendary 7th inning 8-run comeback by the Philadelphia A’s (which featured 15 batters, 10 runs, and two balls lost in the sun by beleaguered Cubs Center Fielder Hack Wilson). {Here is a brief article at baseball-reference.com/blog on the greatest comebacks in MLB regular season & post-season history, Biggest Comeback Wins in Baseball History (by Alex Bonilla at sports-reference.com/blog on Jan 29 2019).}

Game 5 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia). Connie Mack started Howard Ehmke again, but this time Ehmke was ineffective, and was replaced by Rube Walberg in the 4th inning, with the A’s down 2-0. That score stood until the 9th inning, with the A’s down to their last two outs. Then, for the second straight game, the Athletics produced a comeback rally. Max Bishop singled, then Mule Haas’ HR made it 2-2. Cochrane grounded out, but Al Simmons doubled, and after an intentional walk to Jimmie Foxx, Bing Miller doubled, to score Simmons and clinch the Series.

Below: 1929 World Series: Philadelphia Athletics beat Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1; the Series included the greatest comeback in MLB post-season history (A’s come back from 8 runs down to win Game 4, 10-8)...
philadelphia-athletics_1929_worldseries-champions_athletics-4-games_cubs-1_wrigley-field_shibe-park_athletics-have-greatest-comeback-in-mlb-postseason-history_h_.gif
Photo and Image credits above – Logos from
sportlogos.net. Segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics WS program cover, from amazon.com. Segment of 1929 Chicago Cubs WS program from goldinauctions.com. Shibe Park [aerial photo from 1929 photo], unattributed at twitter.com/[@MLBcathedrals]. Wrigley Field [aerial photo from 1929], AP Photo via gladishsolutions.com. Mickey Cochrane, Connie Mack and Lefty Grove [photo circa 1929], AP Photo via ftw.usatoday.com. Small illustration of segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics road jersey, by Marc Okkonen at exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/database. Howard Ehmke [photo from 1929], photo by George Rinhart/Corbis via Getty Images at gettyimages.com. Jimmie Foxx [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at pinterest.com. Al Simmons [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at bleacherreport.com. Photo segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics home uniform, from auction.lelands.com. 1929 WS Shibe Park unauthorized temporary bleachers atop neighboring row houses, colorized photo unattributed at twitter.com/[@BSmile]. Guy Bush [photo from 1929], photo by Sporting News via Rogers Photo Archive via gettyimages.co.uk. Kiki Cuyler [photo from 1929], unattributed at imagekind.com. Rogers Horsnby [photo circa 1929], unattributed at ebay.com. Al Simmons, Jimmie Foxx [photo from 1930], unattributed at baseballhistorycomesalive.com. Jimmy Dykes, Joe Boley, Max Bishop [photo from 1929], photo by Hank Olen/NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images at gettyimages.com. Mule Haas [photo from 1928], from National Baseball Hall of Fame at njmonthly.com. Bing Miller [Fleer retro-trading card from 1960; photo circa 1929], from psacard.com. A’s players storm the field to congratulate for his Series-winning RBI, photo by National Baseball Hall of Fame Library/MLB via Getty Images via gettyimages.com.

Post-script to the 1929 World Series title won by the Philadelphia Athletics…
Fifteen days after the Philadelphia Athletics’ thrilling World Series victory, the bottom dropped out of the US economy, with Black Tuesday. That was October 29, 1929, when the Stock Market crashed, ushering in the decade-long Great Depression. For the Philadelphia Athletics, this led to the eventual dismantling of their championship team. While the Athletics would go on to win the World Series again, in the following year of 1930 (beating the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to 2), and then win the AL pennant for a 3rd straight time in 1931, the Depression put an end to any further glory for the Philadelphia Athletics. To avoid financial ruin of the ball club, owner/manager Connie Mack was forced to sell off his prize players for cash (and mediocre players). In 1932, Al Simmons went to the Chicago White Sox. In 1933, Lefty Grove went to the Boston Red Sox, and Mickey Cochrane went to the Detroit Tigers. And in 1935, Jimmie Foxx also went to the Red Sox. The Philadelphia Athletics never contended for another AL pennant. Connie Mack continued on as owner and manager, slipping into dementia. But none dared challenge him, and the Philadelphia Athletics declined to the point where it became inevitable that the franchise would move. Some people say the wrong baseball team moved out of Philadelphia, and I could not agree more.

1929 MLB stats Leaders.
ERA: Lefty Grove, Philadelphia Athletics. Wins: George Earnshaw, Philadelphia Athletics. Batting Avg: Lefty O’Doul, Philadelphia Athletics. HR: Babe Ruth, New York Yankees. RBI: Hack Wilson, Chicago Cubs. OPS: Rogers Hornsby, Chicago Cubs. Wins Above Replacement (WAR) for Position Players: Rogers Hornsby, Chicago Cubs. WAR for Pitchers: Willis Hudlin, Cleveland Indians.

Photo credits on map page…
Banner (Philadelphia Athletics, 1929 World Series Champions)…Photo segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics home uniform, from auction.lelands.com. 1929 Philadelphis Athletics WS winners’ ring, unattributed at pinterest.com. 1929 Philadelphia WS press pin, from robertedwardauctions.com/1929-philadelphia-athletics-world-series-press-pin. 1929 WS ticket [to 1929 WS game 5 at Shibe Park], from sports.mearsonlineauctions.com/1929-philadelphia-athletics-chicago-cubs-game-5-world-series-ticket-and-stub. 1929-34 Philadelphia A’s cap, from mlbshop.com. 1929 Philadelphia Athletics uniforms, by Marc Okkonen at exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/[al_1929_philadelphia]. 1929

Connie Mack [photo circa 1929], unattributed at pinterest.com. Al Simmons [photo circa 1928], 1961 Golden Press Card via baseball-almanac.com. Jimmy Foxx [photo circa 1932], colorized photo unattributed at pophistorydig.com. Lefty Grove [US Postal Service Stamp; original image circa 1930], from mysticstamp.com. Rube Walberg [photo circa 1929], photo by Getty Images via gettyimages.dk. George Earnshaw [photo from 1928], unattributed at sports.mearsonlineauctions.com. Mickey Cochrane [photo circa 1930], unattributed at pinterest.como. Jimmy Dykes [photo circa 1927], unattributed at baseball-fever.com/[thread: Philadelphia Athletics 1928-32].
1929 MLB Stats leaders…
Lefty Grove [photo circa 1929], photo by Getty Images via si.com. George Earnshaw [photo circa 1929], photo unattributed at phillysportshistory.com. Lefty O’Doul [photo from 1930], photo unattributed at digitalcollections.detroitpubliclibrary.org. Babe Ruth [photo circa 1928], photo unattributed at m.mlb.com/player. Hack Wilson [photo circa 1929], photo by AP via espn.com. Rogers Hornsby [photo from 1929], colorized photo unattributed at ebay.com. Willis Hudlin [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at letsgotribe.com/[top-100-indians-34-willis-hudlin].

Thanks to all at the following links…
Sources:
-University of Texas at Austin online archive (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection), legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states.html.
-Baseball-Reference.com, 1928 AL season1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen), exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/database.htm.
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures), biggestuscities.com/1920.
-Attendances. Source: baseball-reference.com/leagues/MLB/1928-misc.shtml.
-Lost in History [the 1929-31 Philadelphia Athletics] (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at si.com/[vault]).
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at sabr.org).
Most logos from:
-SportsLogos.net, sportslogos.net/[MLB logos].
1929-34 Philadelphia A’s cap, from mlbshop.com. Photo of 1929 NY Giants jersey from Alamy at alamy.com/stock-photo/new-york-giants-baseball. Photo of Detroit Tigers 1929 road ball cap from vintagedetroit.com. Segment of Philadelphia Athletics 1929 home jersey, from worthpoint.com.

June 19, 2020

2019-20 Serie A (Italy/1st division) June 2020 restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in Italian football, 2019-20 attendance data, seasons-in-1st-division-by-club & major titles listed.

Filed under: Italy — admin @ 7:40 am

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2019-20 Serie A (Italy/1st division) June 2020 restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in Italian football, 2019-20 attendance data, seasons-in-1st-division-by-club & major titles listed




By Bill Turianski on 19 June 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

Links…
-Teams, etc…2019-20 Serie A (en.wikipedia.org).
-Serie A page at WorldFootball.net.
-Table, fixtures, results, stats, etc…Serie A/summary (soccerway.com).
-English-speaking coverage of Italian football…Forza Italian football.com.

Serie Re-start on 20 June 2020… {Table.}
Of course, all games will be played behind closed doors, but Italian football authorities have set their sights on allowing a limited number of fans to watch Serie A games before the projected end of the season on 2 August. {See this, Italy Targets Quick Return Of Football Fans To Stadiums (by Stanislaw Touchot at AFP via barrons.com).}

Most teams in the 2019-20 Serie A have played 26 games; 8 teams have played 25 games. In other words, there are 12 rounds of matches still to play, plus four games from previous rounds.

Juventus, who have won 8 straight Serie A titles, hold a one point lead over Lazio. (Lazio, of Rome, have won the title twice, last in 2000.) Internazionale are in 3rd place (5 points above Atalanta in 4th), and are a virtual lock for a coveted UEFA Champions League Group Stage berth – Inter are currently 9 points above 5th place (with a game in hand). The fourth and final UEFA CL Group Stage spot will be contested between upstart Atalanta (of Bergamo) and Napoli, with top-scoring team Atalanta currently in 4th place, 3 points above Napoli. (Atalanta have scored 70 goals in 25 games [2.8 goals per game], which is, amazingly, 10 more than Lazio, and 20 more than Juventus.)

As for the relegation battle, two of the three sides to be relegated are probably already set…Brescia are dead last, and are a near-insurmountable 10 points from safety; SPAL are in 19th place and are 8 points from safety. So the final relegation spot looks to be contested between 5 teams…Lecce (who are currently in the relegation-zone, but only on goal-difference) and the four sides just above the drop-zone: Udinese, Torino, Sampdoria, and Genoa.

Oh, and in case you’re wondering, Juventus plays Lazio in the second-to-last round, on 20 July at Allianz Stadium in Turin. That could very well decide who wears the Scudetto next season.

Aspects of the map page…
The main feature of the map page is a location-map of the 20 clubs in the 2019-20 Serie A. The main map also shows the 20 Regions of Italy, and the 11 largest cities in the country. {Metropolitan populations are from 2019 and are from this source, Metropolitan cities of Italy (en.wikipedia.org).} At the far left is a timeline of COVID-19 in Italian football, that features an outbreak map of Italy’s COVID-19 pandemic {here is the original source of the COVID-19 outbreak map of Italy, File:COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Italy (Density).svg (by Facquis at commons.wikimedia.org).}. The COVID-19 timeline is repeated in the section below.

Below the COVID-19 timeline section on the map-page is a map of: Regions of Italy with 2019-20 Serie A clubs. At the far right of the map page is a chart that shows the following…2019-20 Serie A attendance by club; Stadium-capacity and 2019-20 Percent-capacity by club; 2018-19 finishes by club; Seasons in 1st division by club; Italian titles (and last title won), by club.

And a the foot of the map-page are the 20 crests of the current Serie A clubs, arranged by average attendance (the larger the badge, the higher the average crowd-size).

Italy: 2019-20 Serie A COVID-19 Pandemic Timeline in Italian football
31 January 2020:
The first 2 cases of COVID-19 in Italy were confirmed in Rome: two Chinese tourists (from Wuhan).

Also on On 31 January, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a 6-month state of emergency (Italy was the first EU country to take this measure). At Italian airports, thermal scanners and temperature checks, for arriving travelers, were put in place.

February 2020:
In February, eleven municipalities in northern Italy were placed under quarantine, after being identified as the centres of the two main clusters in the country. The majority of positive cases in other regions traced back to these two clusters.

19 February 2020:
UEFA Champions League tie of Atalanta v Valencia (played in Milan) was retrospectively blamed by local civic and medical authorities for contributing to the very high concentration of coronavirus cases in Atalanta’s home-city of Bergamo. Several fans and Valencia players also had positive diagnoses after returning from the game.

8 March 2020:
Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte expanded the quarantine to all of Lombardy and 14 other northern provinces.

9 March 2020:
On the following day, the quarantine was extended to all of Italy, placing more than 60 million people in quarantine. All sport in Italy was suspended until at least 3 April.

10 & 11 March:
Atalanta played in Madrid, Spain, because UEFA played UEFA Champions League matches, on 10 March (RB Leipzig v Tottenham Hotspur; Valencia v Atalanta); and on 11 March (Liverpool v Atlético Madrid, Paris Saint-Germain v Borussia Dortmund).

18 May 2020:
Italian Football Federation (FIGC) announces that Coppa Italia semi-finals will resume on 13 June, and the Semi A season will resume on Saturday 20 June. The Italian government approved health and safety measures suggested by the FIGC, plus a backup plan in case the league has to be stopped again. There are 12 rounds of matches still to play, plus four games from previous rounds.

___
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of Italy by TUBS, at File:Italy provincial location map.svg.
-Globe-map (orthographic map) of Italy by Rob984 at File:EU-Italy (orthographic projection).svg.
-Map of COVID-19 cases in Italy, by Facquis at File:COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Italy (Density).svg (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Blank map of Italy’s Regions by Gigillo83 at File:Italian regions white (with new provinces).svg (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Populations of Italian cities’ metro-areas from Metropolitan cities of Italy (en.wikipedia.org).
-Attendances on map page from WorldFootball.net/[Serie A].
-Seasons in Italian 1st division: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serie_A#Seasons_in_Serie_A; it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serie_A#Le_squadre.
-Length of current spell in Serie A: de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serie_A#Teilnehmende_Vereine_in_der_Saison_2017/18.
-General info, crests, kit illustrations, from 2019-20 Serie A (en.wikipedia.org).
-COVID timeline info from several sources including COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (en.wikipedia.org), Coronavirus: Italy extends emergency measures nationwide (bbc.com/news/world), and Coronavirus: All sport in Italy suspended because of outbreak (bbc.com/sport).

June 4, 2020

English football clubs, 2019-20 season – After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map, with 134 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.

Filed under: >134 ENG clubs on map — admin @ 1:47 pm

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English football clubs – Map: After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension / All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map with 133 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.




By Bill Turianski on 4 June 2020/ updated on 9 June and 17 June 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20 (average attendance from home domestic league matches, up to the seasons being suspended in mid-March 2020).
The attendance figures are final, because all remaining fixtures will be played behind closed doors. Or, in the case of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th-levels, all remaining fixtures will not be played.

Further below are league-by-league descriptions of restarts, or league-cancellations. (Note: Information on Restarts (or league-cancellations) can also be found at the top-centre of the map.)

Near the foot of this post is various info on the clubs on the map…Which clubs drew above 40-K. Which clubs drew above 20-K. Which clubs are new to the map, as compared to last season (King’s Lynn Town, Spennymoor Town, Wealdstone). And the breakdown of clubs on the map, by league-level.

2020 COVID-19 Pandemic in English football:
-On 13th March 2020, the Premier League season was suspended.
-The English Football League (2nd, 3rd & 4th divisions) was also suspended on 13 March.
-In the 7th level, the Isthmian Leagues and the Southern Leagues were also suspended on 13 March; and then the 7th-level Northern Premier League was suspended three days later, on 16 March.
-The National League (5th & 6th Levels) was last of the top 7 league-levels to suspend their seasons – on the 20th of March.

-On the 9th of April, the FA announced that the 2019-20 seasons would all be cancelled (‘expunged’) for non-League Steps 3-7 (ie, league levels 7 through 11). {See this: Coronavirus: All football below National League to end (bbc.com/football).} That meant all of the seasons had now been declared null and void for all leagues in the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th & 11th levels. No titles to be awarded, no promotions or relegations to be handed out: all of the 2019-20 seasons for Steps 3 through 7 (levels 7 through 11) would be stricken from the books. Perhaps the clubs that were dealt the cruelest blow by this were 7th-level/Northern Premier side South Shields [who are located just south of Newcastle], and 10th-level/Combined Counties Football League D-1 side Jersey Bulls [of the Channel Islands]. South Shields were 12 points clear on top of the Northern Premier League, with 9 games remaining, when the league was suspended {table including attendances, here}. Jersey Bulls had already clinched promotion to the 9th tier: they had won all 27 matches and were 20 points clear {table including attendances, here}. South Shields averaged 1,669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 432 per game. Jersey Bulls averaged 669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 42 per game. Neither will win promotion.

-On 22 April 2020, National League clubs (5th division and 6th level) voted to end the season, with promotion and relegation still ‘under careful consideration’.

-On 13 May, EFL League Championship clubs (2nd division) voted to continue with the season, with plans for players to return to training on 25 May, and the league to restart on 20 June (following, roughly, the same re-start schedule as the Premier League). Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).

-On 15 May 2020, EFL League Two (4th division) voted to end the season, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. The play-offs would be played as normal (behind closed doors). Thus, Swindon Town are champions and will be promoted to the 3rd division, along with 2nd-place-finisher Crewe Alexandra, and 3rd-place finisher Plymouth Argyle. (Note: the weighted PPG switched the top two teams in the table, not that it really mattered too much, as both Swindon and Crewe won automatic promotion anyway.)

-On 28 May 2020, the Premier League announced it was set to Restart on 17 May, with a full slate set for the weekend of 20-21 June {see two paragraphs below}.

-That left just one division undecided…League One (3rd division). That decision did not come until Tuesday 9 June. That was when English Football League clubs met, with the intention of approving the league’s new mechanism for ending a campaign early in the event of the COVID-19 pandemic ruling out the possibility of a normal conclusion. The biggest problem with a 3rd-division-restart was that many third-tier clubs are on shaky financial footing right now, and playing out the rest of the season without ticket revenue could ruin many League One clubs.

-9 June…EFL League One voted, by an ‘overwhelming majority’, to end the season, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. The play-offs will be played as normal (behind closed doors). Thus, Coventry City are champions and will be promoted to the 2nd division, along with 2nd-place-finisher Rotherham United. The biggest change using PPG was that Wycombe Wanderers moved from 8th place to 3rd place, because they hand a game, or games, in hand, compared to the four teams above them {see this, from bbc.com/football}. Relegated from the 3rd division are: Tranmere Rovers, Southend United, Bolton Wanderers.

-17 June…National League clubs [24 in 5th level/44 in 6th level] voted to determine the season on a points-per-game basis. That meant Barrow AFC would be 5th division champions, and will return to the Football League after 48 seasons in non-League football. In the 6th tier, NL-North side King’s Lynn won promotion to the 5th division, by supplanting York City as 1st place finisher (via a better PPG). And NL-South side Wealdstone won promotion to the 5th division as well. Play-offs set to begin on 18 July, and to end no later than 30 July. Relegation in the 5th division still TDB, depending on what EFL L2 does (just one team is expected to be relegated out of the 4th division – currently that would be Stevenage, but Macclesfield Town might be penalized further, and thus be relegated instead). {See this, from bbc.com/sport…Barrow promoted back to English Football League after National League vote.}

Premier League: Project Restart.
Completion of the season to is begin on Wednesday 17 June, with 2 matches that were not played from previous rounds, then a full slate to be played on the weekend of 20-21 June. (The two Wednesday 17 June fixtures are Man City v Arsenal and Aston Villa v Sheffield Utd.) {See this from bbc.com/football.} The plan is to complete all 92 remaining fixtures by Sunday 26 June, with the FA Cup final to be played on Saturday 1 August. (UEFA has set a deadline of 2 August, for all leagues in Europe to finish). At some points in the restart, some teams will have to play as many as 3 games in a week {see this from theguardian.com/football}. All games are to be played behind closed doors. The games are to be played at the home-clubs’ venues, with the exception of several ties…‘Concerns over the possibility of fans gathering outside grounds have led the police to request the following games take place at neutral venues: Manchester City v Liverpool, Manchester City v Newcastle, Manchester United v Sheffield United, Newcastle v Liverpool and Everton v Liverpool. The police have also asked that this list includes any match that may see Liverpool win the title.’ {-Excerpt from What, when, where? Questions answered on Premier League’s return, by Paul MacInnes at theguardian.com/football on 29 May 2020).}

The games will be played every day starting with Saturday 20 June. Match times: Friday 8pm; Saturday 12.30pm, 3pm, 5.30pm, 8pm; Sunday 12pm, 2pm, 4.30pm, 5pm; Monday 8pm; Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 6pm, 8pm.

-4 June 2020: Premier League clubs agree to five substitutions and nine players on bench (by Guardian Sport and PA Media at theguardian.com/football).

The map shows all clubs which were drawing above 1,000-per game, before play was suspended in mid-March 2020. Most leagues had completed between 70% and 80% of the season when play was suspended (I break down the percentages, league by league, below). In the Premier League, most teams had played 29 games (four teams had played 28 games) {2019-20 Premier League table}.

Below is a suspended-season summary of each league, in Levels 1 through 7. (Includes percentage of season competed, and league positions at mid-March season suspension with respect to titles, automatic promotions and relegation). (Note: The list below is repeated on the map, at the top-centre, just to the right of the main map, in a sidebar). (Also, TBD means To Be Determined.)

(1st Level) Premier League 2019-20: Season to Restart on Wednesday 17 June.
(20 teams / 38-game season; winner is English title-winner / 1st through 4th places qualify for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage.)
Most teams had played 29 games (four had played 28) {73% or 76% completed}.
Liverpool lead by 25 points (two wins short of clinching the title).
Currently in the qualification-zone for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage: Liverpool, Manchester City, Leicester, Chelsea.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Bournemouth, Aston Villa, Norwich.

(2nd Level) EFL Championship 2019-20: Season to Restart on Saturday 20 June. Then Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
All teams had played 37 games {80% completed}.
Currently in the Automatic Promotion places: Leeds in 1st place, 7 pts. clear of 3rd; West Brom in 2nd place, 6 pts. clear of 3rd.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Charlton, Luton Town, Barnsley.

(3rd Level) EFL League One 2019-20: Season has ended: On 15 May, clubs voted to end season with immediate effect, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted teams, and Relegated teams, listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors).
(23 teams / 44-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 34 and 36 games {77% to 81% completed}.
Automatically Promoted teams (2): Coventry City, Rotherham.
Relegated teams (3): Tranmere, Southend, Bolton.

(4th Level) EFL League Two 2019-20: Season has ended: On 15 May, clubs voted to end season with immediate effect, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted teams listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation TBD.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd & 3rd place are Promoted*; bottom 2 are Relegated. *5th through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 36 and 37 games {78% to 80% completed}.
Automatically Promoted teams (3): Swindon Town, Crewe Alexandra, Plymouth Argyle.
Relegation Zone: Macclesfield, Stevenage.

(non-League/5th Level) National League 2019-20: Season has been terminated. Then on 17 June, the clubs voted to decide final standings on an unweighted points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted team listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation TBD: but Chorley will definitely be relegated; the other relegations depend on what EFL L2 will do.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 4 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.)
Teams had played between 35 and 39 games {76% to 85% completed}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): Barrow.
Relegation Zone: Ebbsfleet, Maidenhead, AFC Fylde, Chorley.

(non-League/6th Level) National Leagues North & South 2019-20: Season has been terminated. Then on 17 June, the clubs voted to decide final standings on an unweighted points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted team listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation: no teams will be relegated (because 7th-level leagues were declared null and void).
(Two separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place (in each league) in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 31 and 35 games {74% to 83% completed}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): NL-N: King’s Lynn (who were in 2nd place, but had better Points Per Game than York City) {table, here}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): NL-S: Wealdstone.
Relegation Zone: NL-N: Kettering Town, Blyth Spartans, Bradford (Park Avenue).
Relegation Zone: NL-S: Tonbridge Angels, Braintree Town, Hungerford Town.

(non-League/7th Level) Northern / Southern Central / Southern South / Isthmian Leagues 2019-20: Season has been cancelled (Expunged) [All four Level 7 leagues' 2019-20 seasons were declared null and void.].
(Four separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 5th places play in expanded inter-league format for 2 promotion-places total (between the 4 leagues) in the Play-offs.
All four Level 7 leagues’ seasons were cancelled (expunged).
(Teams had played between 26 and 35 games {62% to 83% completed}.
Automatic Promotion places: Northern: South Shields (1st) were 12 pts. clear. Southern Central: Peterborough Sports led on goal-diff, but Tamworth had 2 games-in-hand. Southern South: Truro City (1st) were 1 pt. clear w/ 2 games-in-hand. Isthmian: Worthing (1st) was 7 pts. clear. But no 7th-tier clubs will be promoted.
Relegation Zone: Northern: Matlock Town, Atherton Collieries, Stafford Rangers. Southern Central: St. Ives Town, Alvechurch, Redditch Utd. Southern South: Walton Casuals, Beaconsfield, Dorchester. Isthmian: Wingate & Finchley, Merstham, Brighlingsea. These clubs in the relegation zones got a big break, as no 7th-tier clubs will be relegated.

Aspects of the map page
The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20. (Data from approximately 70-to-80% of home domestic league matches [all the matches played up to the suspension of play in mid-March 2020].) Again, these attendance figures are final, because all remaining regular-season matches will be played behind closed doors.

(Note: in bold-17-to-36-point-type, on the map, are listed the 9 largest cities within England {all English cities with more than .6 million inhabitants, from: List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (en.wikipedia.org)}…Greater London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Nottingham, Sheffield, Bristol. Also, in 12-to-15-point-type, on the map, are listed the 83 Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. Also, in 14-point-all-cap-bold-type, are listed prominent British regional names such as: the East Midlands, the West Midlands, East Anglia, the West Country, and the Lake District; as well as North Wales and South Wales.)

Also, there is an inset-map for all the clubs from Greater London-plus-the-immediate surrounding area [Greater London (18 Clubs from Greater London + 3 from surrounding areas of the Home Counties).]

The expanded list on the right side of the map shows 7 things…
A) Attendance Rank.
B) 2019-20 Divisional status (League-Level; and league position when the seasons were suspended).
C) Home domestic league Average Attendance from 2019-20.
D) Seasons that the Club has played in the 1st division (there have been 121 seasons of English 1st division seasons [counting 2019-20]).
E) English titles won (with last title noted).
F) FA Cup titles won (with last Cup-win noted).
G) League Cup titles won (with last cup-win noted).

At the foot of the map-page are shown the crests of the top-50-drawing English-and-Welsh clubs, arranged L-R with their crests sized, to reflect their drawing-power. (The top 50 drawing clubs in the English league system in 2019-20 ended up being all the clubs which drew above 10.0 K per game.)

There were 9 clubs which drew above 40 thousand per game…
(In the previous season [2018-19], there were 8 clubs which drew above 40 K. The reason why there were 9 clubs drawing above 40 K in 2019-20 was that Aston Villa, who had just won promotion back to the Premier League, saw their attendance shoot up 5.6 K-per-game.)
(List below shows the 9 clubs that drew above 40-K-per-game in 2019-20 (with Numerical Change from 2018-19.)
-Manchester United, averaging 73.3 K per game (down -1.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Arsenal, 60.2 K (up +0.3 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-West Ham United, 59.8 K (up +1.5 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Tottenham Hotspur, 59.3 K (up +5.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Manchester City 54.2 K (up +0.08 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Liverpool, 53.1 K (up +0.16 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Newcastle United, 48.2 K (down -2.8 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Aston Villa, 41.6 K (up +5.6 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Chelsea, 40.5 K (up +0.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

And, in 2019-20, there were 32 clubs in the English league system which drew above 20.0 K per game. The clubs drawing above 20-K-per-game included the 9 highest-drawing clubs listed above, plus the 21 clubs listed below. Breakdown by division: 19 Premier League clubs (all except Bournemouth); 10 Championship clubs; 1 League One club (Sunderland).
-Everton (1), 39.1 K.
-Leeds United AFC (2), 35.3 K.
-Leicester City (1), 32.0 K.
-Wolverhampton Wanderers (1), 31.3 K.
-Sheffield United (1), 30.8 K.
-Brighton & Hove Albion (1), 30.3 K.
-Sunderland AFC (3), 30.1 K.
-Southampton (1), 29.6 K.
-Nottingham Forest (2), 27.7 K.
-Norwich City (1), 27.0 K.
-Derby County (2), 26.7 K.
-Crystal Palace (1), 25.0 K.
-West Bromwich Albion (2), 24.0 K.
-Sheffield Wednesday (2), 23.7 K.
-Stoke City (2), 22.8 K.
-Cardiff City (2), 22.8 K.
-Bristol City (2), 21.8 K.
-Huddersfield Town AFC (2), 21,7 K.
-Watford (1), 20.8 K.
-Birmingham City (2), 20.4 K.
-Burnley (1), 20.2 K.

There are 3 clubs on the map, who were not drawing above 1-K-per-game before 2019-20. {Here is my map from last season, 2018-19 English football clubs map/133 clubs}.
Those 3 clubs are:
∙King’s Lynn Town (of Norfolk), who drew 1.4 K, in the 6th-tier National League North. King’s Lynn Town are currently in 2nd place, 2 pts. behind York City, but King’s Lynn would be in 1st place, and in the automatic-promotion-place, using PPG {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on King’s Lynn Town}.
∙Spennymoor Town (of Durham), who drew 1.1 K, also in the 6th-tier National League North. Spennymoor Town are in their 3rd season ever of 6th-tier football. Spennymoor is located, by road, 26 miles (41 km) south of Newcastle. Five years ago, Spennymoor Town were drawing 542 per game, in the 7th-tier Northern Premier D1-North. After winning promotion to the 6th tier for 2017-18, Spennymoor drew in the 800s-per-game, finishing in 8th in 2017-18, then in 4th place last season. Currently they sit 6th, in the play-off places – but would be outside the play-off paces if PPG were to be used {table, here}.
∙Wealdstone (of north-west Greater London, situated in the former county of Middlesex). Wealdstone drew 1.0 K in the 6th-tier National League South. Wealdstone were a founding member of the Alliance Premier League (present-day 5th division/the National League), in 1979-80. Wealdstone have led the 2019-20 National League South since September (they currently lead Havant & Waterlooville by 2 pts.) {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on Wealdstone}.

The list goes to 1,000 per game (134 clubs), but I also included, on the list – and on the map – all clubs which drew in the 900s…of which there were only 3 clubs: Bomsgrove Sporting (7), Ebbsfleet United (5), Gateshead (6-N). So that made it 137 teams on the map. Here are all the clubs which just missed out being on the map: that is, all the clubs which drew in the 800s…5 clubs: Worthing (7), Chelmsford City (6-S), Slough Town (6-S), Blyth Spartans (6-N), Guernsey (8).

Here is the breakdown, by division (aka level), of…
All the clubs in the English football pyramid which drew over 1 K per game in 2018-19 (134 clubs).
1 – Premier League: all 20 clubs.

2 – EFL Championship: all 24 clubs.

3 – EFL League One: all 23 clubs.

4 – EFL League Two: all 24 clubs.

5 – [non-League] National League: 22 of the 24 clubs…The exceptions being Ebbsfleet United (who drew 979 per game), and Boreham Wood (who drew a club record 724 per game).

6 – [non-League] The 6th tier is comprised of 2 regional leagues: National League North & National League South. 18 of the 44 clubs in the 6th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (11 in NL-North, 7 in NL-South).
-York City (6-N), drawing 2,705 per game.
-Dulwich Hamlet (6-S), 2,183.
-Hereford (6-N), 2,049.
-Chester (6-N), 2,019.
-Maidstone United (6-S), 1,776.
-Darlington (6-N), 1,471.
-King’s Lynn Town (6-N), 1,417.
-Havant & Waterlooville (6-S), 1,390.
-Kidderminster Harriers (6-N), 1,364.
-Boston United (6-N), 1,304.
-Dartford (6-S), 1,182.
-Spennymoor Town (6-N), 1,182.
-AFC Telford United (6-N), 1,148.
-Altrincham (6-N), 1,139.
-Weymouth (6-S), 1,077.
-Bath City (6-S), 1,064.
-Wealdstone (6-S), 1,031.
-Southport (6-N), 1,006.

7 – [non-League] The 7th tier is comprised of 4 regional leagues: Northern Premier/Southern Central/Southern South/Isthmian Leagues. 3 of the 88 clubs in the 7th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (all 3 from the Northern Premier League).
The three 7th-level clubs which drew above 1 K per game were:
-South Shields (7-Northern Premier), 1,669.
-FC United of Manchester (7-Northern Premier), 1,668.
-Scarborough Athletic (7-Northern Premier), 1,001.

Final breakdown of the 134 clubs drawing over 1,00 per game in 2019-20: all 20 Premier League clubs; all 71 Football League clubs; 43 non-League clubs / 130 English clubs and 4 Welsh clubs.
___
Sources for map…
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of English Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Counties, by Nilfanion, at File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
-List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (en.wikipedia.org).
-Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England (en.wikipedia.org).
-Local government in Wales/Principal areas of Wales (en.wikipedia.org).
Attendance figures…
-worldfootball.net. (2019-20 Average attendances from the 1st division through 4th division.)
-nonleaguematters.co.uk. (2019-20 Average attendances of all non-League clubs on the map, ie from 5th division, 6th division, and 7th division.)
-League tables from soccerway.com.
-Information on COVID-19 Pandemic on English football from several sources including theguardian/football, bbc.com/sport/football, 2019-20 Premier League (en.wikipedia.org).

May 27, 2020

Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map including COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball; with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list./+ Illustration for 2019 Korean Series: Doosan Bears sweep Kiwoom Heroes to win their 3rd KBO title in 5 years.

Filed under: Baseball,Korea: baseball — admin @ 7:26 am

korea_baseball_kbo-league_2020_attendance-map-2019_kbo-titles-list_mascots_segment-illustration_d_.gif
Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list



By Bill Turianski on 27 May 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

Links…
-KBO teams…KBO League/ Teams (en.wikipedia.org).
-KBO official site/schedule, scores, standings; About KBO, etc. (in English, with Korean option)…http://eng.koreabaseball.com/.
-KBO 리그의 공식 사이트http://www.koreabaseball.com/Default.aspx.
-The Korea Herald/baseball (koreaherald.com/[sports]/[baseball]).

-No MLB? Korean baseball is in full swing—here’s what you need to know, from KBO cheerleaders to bat-flipping (by Tom Huddlseston at cnbc.com on May 25 2020).

KBO League map-page…
The map-page includes a COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball. The text for the timeline is repeated two paragraphs below. The map-page features a location-map of the 10 KBO League teams, including an inset-map of Greater Seoul aka Seoul Capital Area (there are 5 KBO League teams in Seoul Capital Area, including 3 teams in Seoul city-proper (aka Seoul Special City). For each team, there is a Circular-cap-logo that is sized to reflect 2019 average attendance…the larger the circular-cap-logo, the higher the team’s attendance. 2016 Korea Post stamps are shown for each team. These stamps each feature the team’s mascot. Some of the stamps have been updated to show recently-changed new cap logos and color-changes (LG Twins, Lotte Giants, Kia Tigers, Kiwoom Heroes). There are also 3 charts: One chart shows the 9 largest cities in South Korea (all cities with more than one million in their Metropolitan Areas). Another chart shows 2019 attendance for the 10 KBO League teams. Attendance, overall was down for the second-straight season in the KBO League, and last year league-wide attendance fell an alarming 9.8% {see the section on 2019 KBO attendance, which is about halfway further down this post}. The third chart show the full Titles list for the KBO League (the KBO League’s first season was in 1982).

Finally, there is a section at the far right-hand side of the map-page which has Team Profile Boxes for the 10 KBO League teams. In the profile boxes there are shown or listed several things…Cap-logo. Primary logo. Season team was established. Venue-location(s) & City-location(s). [Note: 3 KBO League teams have a secondary venue, in a neighboring city, where they play a few home games each season (Lotte Giants, Samsung Lions, Hanwha Eagles). Those secondary locations are also shown on the map.] Team Owner with owner’s business, and company logo. Titles won by team, with last title listed, along with the number of times the team has finished as Runners-up. Primary mascot’s logo.

South Korea: 2020 KBO League: COVID-19 Timeline in Korean Baseball

December 2019: 2020 KBO League season schedule was released: 28th of March was scheduled for opening day.

10 March 2020: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) cancelled all exhibition games, and delayed the start of the 2020 KBO League season indefinitely.

19 April 2020: New COVID-19 cases, per day, in all of South Korea, dropped to single-digits.

21 April 2020: Preseason games begin for restart.

5 May 2020: 2020 KBO League begins. Full 144-game season is scheduled, but in a more compressed time-frame, meaning more doubleheaders, less off-days, and no All-Star break. The season is projected to end on the 2nd of November. Post-season to end no later than 25 November.

The stadiums will be empty except for players, staff, umpires and some media. Masks and latex gloves must be worn by base coaches and umpires on the field; teams’ training staff must wear masks in the dugouts. Players wear masks in the dugout, but not on the field. There can be small cheerleading squads. Spitting is not allowed.

Will there be fans in the stadiums? Yonhap news agency reported that the KBO has plans to gradually open the stadiums, depending on the progress of the pandemic.

Here are articles which helped me put together the timeline…
-2020 KBO League season (en.wikipedia.org).
-S. Korean baseball season pushed further back to late April (by Yonhap news agency at koreaherald.com/sports/baseball on 24 March 2020).
-Inside look at Korean baseball restart that offers hope for MLB (by Joel Sherman at nypost.com/[MLB] on 20 April 2020).
-S. Korean baseball regular season to begin May 5 (by Yonhap news agency at koreaherald.com/sports/baseball on 21 April 2020).
The link below is recommended…
-The Korean Baseball Organization is back from the coronavirus shutdown… (by Ryan Divish at seattletimes.com/sports on 8 May 2020).

Demographics of South Korea
The population of South Korea is around 51.7 million {source: 2019 estimate, here at South Korea en.wikipedia page}. This puts South Korea as the 27th-most-populous nation on Earth. South Korea is very small, though: it is the 109th-largest country (at 100,210 km-sq or 66,690 mi-sq). That makes South Korea slightly smaller than Iceland, and slightly larger than Hungary. The largest city in South Korea (by far) is, of course, Seoul…which is absolutely gigantic, and has a metro-area population that is fifth-largest on the planet. Seoul has a special-city population of around 10.1 million, and metro-area population of around 25.5 million ! Only Tokyo, Japan (at ~37.2 million), Shanghai, Jakarta, and Delhi have larger metro-area populations than does Seoul. {Source.} Basically, half of the population of South Korea resides in Seoul’s metropolitan area. South Korea has about the 29th-highest adjusted-GDP in the world [International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates] {see this, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita).

KBO League est. 1982; 10 teams. Season: 144 games/5-team playoffs w/reg-season-winner getting bye to the 5-game Korean Series
Pro major-league baseball in South Korea began in 1982, with the institution of the KBO League as a 6-team league. A minor league was established eight years later in 1990 – the KBO Futures League. In 1986, the KBO League expanded to include a seventh team.

In the first decade of its existence, the KBO League as a whole was only drawing in the 5 to 7 K range. By 1991, the KBO League had 8 teams. In 1995, cumulative attendance for the season finally topped 10 K per game, boosted by the exciting 1995 KBO season which saw three teams, the OB Bears, the LG Twins, and the Lotte Giants, go neck-to-neck for the pennant (the title in ’95 was won by the OB, now Doosan, Bears).

However, this league attendance figure wasn’t surpassed for 14 years. After 1995, the KBO began to see dwindling fan interest that lasted for about a decade. What first helped reverse the gradual slide in attendances from 1996 to 2004 was the good showing that the South Korean national baseball team had in the first World Baseball Classic, in 2005, when they finished in third. Another boost to the game there came three years later, when South Korea narrowly lost to Japan in extra innings in the second World Baseball Classic, and then six months later, the South Korean baseball team won the gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

These results convinced many South Korean sports fans that KBO baseball was a product worth supporting. In 2008, league-wide attendance shot up 2.3 K per game to 10.4 K; the next year [2009] it was 11.1 K, and the KBO League began drawning above 11 K (up to 2018). The health of Korean pro baseball was seen in the fact that there was recent expansion. The KBO League finally got to 10 teams, first with the creation of a 9th team (the NC Dinos) in 2013, and a 10th team (the KT Wiz) in 2015.

But after reaching peak attendance in 2017, the KBO League has seen two straight years of attendance decline, including a 9.8% drop in overall attendance in 2019. The KBO League had peak attendance in 2017 at 8.40 million tickets sold, which was 11,668 per game {2017 KBO League attendance}. 2018 saw a 4% decline in attendance, at 8.07 million ticket sold and an average of 11,214 per game {2018 KBO League attendance}. Then 2019 saw a more drastic decline in attendance, at just 7.28 million tickets sold and an average of 10,119 per game {2019 KBO League attendance}.

The explanation for the alarming drop in attendance in 2019 at KBO League games is twofold...
1) A number of the bigger teams had bad seasons in 2019. Like the Lotte Giants, who finished dead last, and dropped over 3,000-per-game in attendance. Also in that category were the Kia Tigers and the Hanwha Eagles, both of whom had below-.440 -percentage seasons in 2019, and both of whom saw a drop-off of around 2,400-per-game in attendance. But then there was of situation of the SK Wyverns, who had a very good season for the second straight year (finishing in 2nd place in both 2018 and 2019), but who nevertheless saw a drop-off of around 750 per game (to a still-respectable 13.6 per game). Why?…see below.
2) The KBO League changed the specifications of their official baseballs to 1 mm wider and 1 gram heavier. And that has appeared to lower offensive numbers in 2019. In other words, the KBO messed with their baseball, and it backfired. {See this tweet from February 2019, by a writer at FanGraphs.com who is also an employee of the Lotte Giants: ‘The KBO is implementing new baseball. It is 1 mm bigger and 1 g heavier, hoping that it could help neutralize the high-offense environment that the league is known for. According to a simulation ran by the SK Wyverns, the ball resulted in 20% less home runs than the previous one’, tweet from twitter.com/[Sung Min kim].} {Also see this article, The KBO Appears to Be De-Juicing its Baseballs (by Sun Min Kim at fangraphs.com on 23 April 2019).} The theory is that the drop in offense (particularly the drop in Home Runs) drove fans away in 2019. {See this, Pitching regains foothold as home runs, attendance drop in S. Korean baseball (by Yoo Jee-Ho at en.yna.co.kr on 2 October 2019).}

Only one team had a substantial increase in attendance in 2019 in the KBO League, and that was the relatively new team the NC Dinos (est. 2013). The NC Dinos went from last-place in 2018, to a wild-card berth in 2019, winning 25 more games in the process, and seeing a 3,700-per-game increase in their crowds, to a more respectable 9.8-K-per-game attendance. That is still below the general league average (in a good season), but NC Dinos’ attendance figures were certainly better than the other new team, the KT Wiz (est. 2015), whose average attendance has dropped 2.1-K-per-game in two years.

As of the 27th of May 2020 (19 or 20 games played), the NC Dinos currently lead the 2020 KBO League, by 3 games over the LG Twins and 4 games over the reigning champions the Doosan Bears. {KBO League standings.}

    Doosan Bears, 2019 Korean Series champions (the Bears’ 3rd title in 5 years)
    두산 베어스, 2019 한국 시리즈 챔피언 (5 년 만에 베어스 3 위)

korean-series_doosan-bears_2019_kbo-league_champions_bears-sweep-kiwoom-heroes_d_.gif
Photo and Image credits above – Blank map of Seoul, by Mikey641 & OpenStreetMap contributors at File:Seoul South Korea location map.svg (commons.wikimedia.org). Overhead view of crowd and field at Jamsil Baseball Stadium right before start of the 2019 Korean Series, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at youtube.com. Oh Jae-il makes leaping catch, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at youtube.com. Oh Jae-il hits walk-off single in 9th to win Game 1 for Doosan Bears, screenshot of video uploaded by Arirang News at youtube.com. Park Kun-woo is congratulated by teammates after his walk-off single in the bottom of the 9th in Game 2, photo by Yonhap via en.yna.co.kr. Game 3 standots: Park Kun-wa and Seth Frankel, photo by Yonhap via en.yna.co.kr. Doosan Bears players rush the field to celebrate their title, screenshot from video uploaded by BearSpotv베어스포티비 at youtube.com.

Josh Lindblom, photo by News1 via koreajoongangdaily.joins.com. Jose Miguel Fernandez, photo by OSEN via news.chosun.com. Oh Jae-il, photo by Yonhap via koreatimes.co.kr.
___
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Globe-map of South Korea, by Ksiom at File:South Korea (orthographic projection).svg (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Blank map of South Korea, by NordNordWest at :FileSouth Korea location map.svg (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Attendance…koreabaseball.com/Record/Crowd/History (koreabaseball.com).
-Lotte Giants’ official shop, lottegiantsshop.com/[new 2018 cap], thanks for photo of the brand-new Lotte Giants’ deep-navy-blue-and-wine-red ball cap logo.
-KBO teams’ K-stamps (2016) [KBO-team-cap-with-mascot], by Shin Jaeyong/Korea Post stampworld.com/stamps/South-Korea/Postage-stamps/g3144/.

May 11, 2020

Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in German football & Bundesliga table before the restart; plus a chart with: final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs.

Filed under: Germany — admin @ 8:06 am

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Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 Timeline in German football, league table before the restart, final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs



By Bill Turianski on 11 May 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

Links…
-2019–20 Bundesliga (en.wikipedia.org).
-World Football.net site…worldfootball.net/bundesliga.
-Official site of Bundesliga (English)…bundesliga.com/en/bundesliga.
-Deutsche Welle [in English]…DW/en/sports.
-Summary – 2019-20 Bundesliga: fixtures, tables, results, stats, etc…us.soccerway.com.

-Here is a map I posted in August 2019: it shows German clubs by Membership-Size (56 clubs)…Germany: 2019-20 map showing Club Membership sizes (top 3 levels: Bundesliga, 2-Bundesliga, 3-Liga/56 teams) (figures from January 2019).

-Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (by Matt Pearson at dw.com/en on 8 May 2020).

-Coronavirus: Dynamo Dresden cases leave Bundesliga restart in the balance (by Matt Ford at dw.com/en on 10 May 2020).

2019-20 Bundesliga: COVID-19 Pandemic Timeline in German football
8 March 2020: German health minister recommends cancelling events with more than 1,000 people.

9 March: DFL announced that the Bundesliga season would be completed to ensure planning for the following season, and that any postponements would be to matchdays ‘en bloc’.

11 March: Catch-up match between Borussia Mönchengladbach and FC Köln was played behind closed doors (first time in league history).

13 March: All Matchday 26 games were suspended (Round 26, 13-16 March).

16 March: DFL suspended the leagues until at least 2 April.

6 May: German chancellor Angela Merkel and the leaders of the 16 Federal States of Germany approved resumption of the leagues.

7 May: DFL announces Bundesliga will resume on 16 May, with Matchday 26. All matches to be played behind closed doors, with no more than 332 people in support of the match there at the stadium (figure includes players, coaches
and referees, journalists, doping control officers, stewards, emergency services, groundskeepers and ball boys and ball girls.

(Germany’s ban on large-scale social events remains until the end of August.)

The final Matchday (Round 34) will take place on 27 June.
___
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Blank map of Germany, by NordNordWest at File:Germany location map.svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Globe-map of Germany, by Rob984 File:EU-Germany_(orthographic_projection).svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Map with Federal States of Germany from States of Germany (en.wikipedia.org).
-Attendance figures and Stadium Capacities from World Football.net site…worldfootball.net/bundesliga.
-14 largest German cities from List of cities in Germany by population (en.wikipedia.org).
-Closed door match info from -Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (dw.com/en).
-COVID-19 timeline and Stadium capacities from 2019–20 Bundesliga (en.wikipedia.org).

April 27, 2020

1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees.

Filed under: Baseball,Baseball-1928 MLB season,Retro maps — admin @ 11:15 am

http://billsportsmaps.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/mlb_al_nl_1928-map_w-uniforms_logos_standings_stats-leaders_1928-ws-champs_new-york-yankees_post_b_.gif
1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees




By Bill Turianski on 27 April 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.
Links…
Sources:
-Baseball-Reference.com, 1928 AL season; 1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen), exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/database.htm.
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures), biggestuscities.com/1920.
-Attendances. Source: baseball-reference.com/leagues/MLB/1928-misc.shtml.
-Most logos. Source: SportsLogos.net, sportslogos.net/[MLB logos].

Aspects of the map-and-chart:
A). 1928 location-map of the 16 MLB teams. Home cities listed, then franchises listed in smaller text below the home-city name. Each team (franchise) has at least one logo from that year (in this case, 1928); the logos are sized to reflect average attendance from that season: the higher-drawing teams have larger logos-and-or-multiple-logos. In this case, that applies to the top-drawing teams in the NL in 1928 (the Chicago Cubs and the NY Giants, as well as the Brooklyn Robins [aka Dodgers], and the St. Louis Cardinals), and it applies to the top-drawing teams in the AL in 1928 (the New York Yankees, as well as the Philadelphia Athletics). Similarly, the lower-drawing teams in MLB that season have much smaller logos on the map (in this case, such as the Boston Braves and the Philadelphia Phillies).

In my first MLB retro map, I took a look at attendance figures – by team – in this era…{here, 1925 MLB retro map [Pirates win WS].}

B). Population of US cities (1920 figures). A small chart showing the 25-then-largest cities of the USA in 1920 is shown at the upper-left-hand side of the map. MLB representation-by-city is noted there. In my 1926 and 1927 retro MLB maps, I took a look at Populations of US Cities (1920 figures), with a small expanded chart of the one on the map…{1926 MLB retro map [Cardinals win WS].} {1927 MLB retro map [Yankees win WS].}

C). Attendance {data from baseball-reference.com}. 1928 MLB team average attendances are shown at the upper-right of the map. Two paragraphs above is a link to an article I wrote about MLB attendance team-by-team, circa the 1920s.

D). World Series champions (for 1928, the New York Yankees). World Series champions are represented by a prominent section at the top of the map. A photo of the manager of the WS winner is shown (Miller Huggins), along with 7 photos of the top players on the WS-winning Yankees of 1928 (Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Herb Pennock, Waite Hoyt, Tony Lazzeri, George Pigras, Earle Combes). The players shown were determined by WAR [Wins After Replacement]. Players who have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame [HoF] are noted, by a bronze-colored square with year of HoF election listed.

E). Top players in MLB for 1928 are shown at the foot of the map. Photos of stats leaders in several categories are shown…for Pitchers: ERA, Wins, and WAR (Pitchers); for Position-Players: Batting Average (BAvg), HR, RBI, OPS, and WAR. Again, HoF players are noted.

1928 MLB stats leaders…
ERA, Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). Wins: [joint-best] Larry Benton (NY baseball Giants) / Burleigh Grimes (Pittsburgh). WAR (for pitchers), Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). BAvg, Rogers Hornsby (Boston [NL]). HR, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). RBI, Lou Gehrig (NY [AL]). OPS, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). WAR (for position players), Babe Ruth (NY [AL]).

F). MLB team sections: flanking sections, in alphabetized chart-form, show the 8 NL franchises (of 1928) on the far-left of the map, and the 8 AL franchises (of 1928) on the far-right of the map. The sections include several things…In each franchise’s rectangular box is shown their uniforms from that season, and at least one of their primary logos from that season, along with a narrow bar that is in the team’s colors that season. A photo of the present-day-franchise’s home ball cap is shown [2020 ball caps]. And franchise info is shown for each team, including: years of existence [seasons in NL or AL], location(s), league-titles [Pennants] and MLB titles [WS titles], plus any franchise movements. Standard abbreviations for each team are used. As far as former teams go, to avoid any confusion, I used baseball-reference.com’s abbreviations. {Here: baseball-reference.com/about/[team_IDs](MLB team abbreviations).}

    1928: New York Yankees win their second straight World Series title, with another Series-shutout…

In 1928, the American League’s New York Yankees won their second consecutive (and then-3rd overall) World Series title. Coming off the heels of the legendary 1927 Yankees (when they swept the Pittsburgh Pirates in 4 games), the 1928 Yankees repeated, by sweeping the National League’s St. Louis Cardinals. The Yankees beat out the Philadelphia Athletics by 2.5 games for the 1928 AL pennant; the Cardinals beat out the Cubs (by 2 games) and the Giants (by 4 games), for the NL pennant.

The Yankees used only 3 pitchers in the 1928 World Series: Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, and George Pipgras {see photo below}. Between them, they pitched 4 Complete Games. In the 1st game, RHP Waite Hoyt held the Cardinals to just 3 hits. Hoyt went the distance, and the Yankees won 4-1, with Bob Meusal hitting a HR. In the 2nd game, RHP George Pipgras also went the full 9 innings, as the Yanks won 9-4. Lou Gehrig hit a 3-run HR in the 1st inning. Pipgras gave up just 4 hits.

Two days later (Oct. 7 1928) in St. Louis, Missouri, the Yankees won their 3rd straight complete-game-win. This time, the pitcher was journeyman LHP Tom Zachary. (Zachary was picked up off waivers from Washington in August, replacing the injured Herb Pennock.) The Yanks won 7-3, on the strength of Lou Gehrig’s 2 HRs. In the 4th and final game, Waite Hoyt again threw a complete game. The Yankees hit 4 HRs…3 HRs by Babe Ruth, and one HR by Lou Gehrig (his 4th of the Series). The final score, again, was 7-3. The Yankees had swept, and they had avenged their 1926 Fall Classic loss to the Cardinals.

1927 / ’28 was the first time a team had ever swept back-to-back World Series contests. No other ball club in Major League Baseball has accomplished the feat of back-to-back World Series sweeps…but the New York Yankees have gone on to do it two more times…in 1938 / ’39, and then in 1998 / ’99.

Below: 1928 New York Yankees: the first team to ever sweep back-to-back World Series titles…
1928_ny-yankees_ws-champions_babe-ruth_lou-gehrig_waite-hoyt_george-pipgras_tom-zachary_c_.gif
Photo and Image credits above -
Photo from right-field bleachers at Yankee Stadium [opening game of 1928 World Series], from a screenshot from a video uploaded by New York Yankees at youtube.com. Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, George Pipgras [photo taken before game 1 of the 1928 WS]: photo from gettyimages.com. Gehrig and Ruth [circa 1928], photo from Wikimedia Commons via pinstripealley.com.

___

Photo and Image credits on the map page…
1928 World Series champions New York Yankees…
Babe Ruth [colorized photo from 1928], photo unattributed at twitter.com/[@baseballincolor]. Lou Gehrig [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via si.com. Herb Pennock [photo circa 1928], unattributed at cmgworldwide.com. Waite Hoyt [photo circa 1928], unattributed at baseballhall.org. Tony Lazzeri [photo from 1929], photo unattributed at mearsonlineauctions.com. George Pipgras [photo circa 1928], unattributed at fold3.com. Earle Combs [photo circa 1927], unattributed at pinterest.com. Miller Huggins [colorized photo circa 1929], photo unattributed and colorized by Don Stokes at baseballhistorycomesalive.com. “Murderers Row”, featuring Gehrig, Ruth, Combes, Lazzeri [colorized photo from 1929], photo unattributed at flickr.com/[Willie Brown]. Photo of 1928 World Series Game 1 ticket, from hugginsandscott.com.

1928 MLB stats leaders…
Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1928], photo unattributed at sabr.org. Larry Doyle (NYG) [photo circa 1928], trading card from vintagecardprices.com. Burleigh Grimes (PIT) [photo circa 1929], photo unattributed at oldbucs.blogspot.com. Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1924], photo unattributed at mearsonlineauctions.com. Rogers Hornsby (BSN) [photo from 1928], photo from the cover of Time Magazine via File:Rogers Hornsby 1928.jpg (commons.wikimedia.org). Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], unattributed at huntauctions.com. Lou Gehrig (NYY) [photo circa 1928], unattributed at sabr.org. Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via si.com.

Thanks to all at the following links…
Sources:
-University of Texas at Austin online archive (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection), legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states.html.
-Baseball-Reference.com, 1928 AL season1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen), exhibits.baseballhalloffame.org/dressed_to_the_nines/database.htm.
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures), biggestuscities.com/1920.
-Attendances. Source: baseball-reference.com/leagues/MLB/1928-misc.shtml.
Most logos from:
-SportsLogos.net, sportslogos.net/[MLB logos].
-1928 Detroit Tigers home jersey script- logo, illustration from flickr.com/photos/heritagesportsart.
-1928 NY Giants road cap logo, photo from sportscards.com.

April 9, 2020

NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed./+ A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences.

Filed under: Hockey,NCAA, ice hockey — admin @ 8:07 am

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NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed



By Bill Turianski on 9 April 2020. twitter.com/billsportsmaps.
Links…
Source: List of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team (en.wikipedia.org).

The NCAA Division I has 60 ice hockey teams. Those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams are split into 6 Conferences (with 1 current Independent team [Arizona State]). Of those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams, 40 teams have advanced into the the final four of the NCAA Division I Men’s Hockey Tournament (aka the Frozen Four). You can read a timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and all the D-1 hockey conferences, further below.

The map here shows the 40 teams that have made it to a Frozen Four (72 Frozen Fours, from 1947-48 to 2018-19). The other 20 D-1 hockey teams, which have never advanced to a Frozen Four, are also shown on the map, albeit in smaller text-size and without colors or logos. On the map, each of the 40 teams’ Total-Frozen-Four-Appearances are shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total Frozen 4 appearances, the larger the team-colors-circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances +their Division I men’s hockey titles (21 teams have won a D-1 hockey title). Like the team-color-circles, the team’s logo and text are sized, gradually getting larger with more Frozen 4 appearances; plus I bumped up the text 1-point-size if the team has won a D-1 hockey title.

There are two charts at the right side of the map-page.
∙ The smaller chart closer to the map shows the 60-team NCAA D-1 hockey set-up, by the 6 Conferences: with each school’s hockey-venue-location noted, as well as the season the team joined D-1 hockey (or re-joined D-1 hockey). Total D-1 titles by team, and by conference, are also listed.
The chart at the far right-hand side show these things…
∙ School’s team, with the team’s D-1 hockey conference and their primary logo.
∙ Number of Frozen Four Appearances (with last appearance noted).
∙ Number of D-1 men’s hockey Titles (with last title noted).

- {From Wikipedia, here is a map of all 60 D-1 hockey teams, by conference.}

- {From 2016, here is a map of 2015-16 D-1 men’s ice hockey attendance, that I made.} {If you are curious about D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences, go to the right-hand sidebar on my homepage at “NCAA, ice-…”, to see my 2016 posts on the 6 NCAA D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences.}

    A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences

As mentioned, there are 60 Division I men’s hockey teams. But actually, 20 of those of those teams represent schools which are otherwise Division II or Division III schools. Here are those 20 schools with D-1 hockey teams, but whose athletics teams are otherwise part of D-II or D-III…
∙ 4 of the 11 teams from Atlantic Hockey: AIC, Bentley, Mercyhurst, RIT.
∙ None of the 7 teams from Big Ten Hockey.
∙ 4 of the 12 teams from ECAC Hockey: Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Union College.
∙ None of the 11 teams from Hockey East.
∙ 3 of the 8 teams from the NCHC: Colorado College, Minnesota-Duluth, St. Cloud State.
∙ 9 of the 10 teams from the WCHA [ie, all except Bowling Green]: Alabama-Huntsville, Alaska-Anchorage, Alaska-Fairbanks, Bemidji State, Ferris State, Lake Superior State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota State-Mankato, Northern Michigan.

Of these 20 teams from otherwise D-II or D-II schools, seven have won D-1 hockey titles: Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles incl. 2019), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Michigan Tech (3 titles), Rensselaer (2 titles), Colorado College (2 titles), Union College (one title), Northern Michigan (one title).

The annual NCAA Division I Men’s Ice Hockey Tournament began in 1947-48, when the NCAA selection committee chose four top D-1 hockey teams to compete in a single-elimination tournament. In the tournament’s first 29 years (1948-76), all the four teams that were selected for the tournament already comprised the Frozen Four. The first ten seasons of the tournament (1948-57) were held at Colorado Springs, CO. Since then, the tournament has been hosted by a different city each year. Michigan won the first D-1 tournament, as well as 6 of the first 10 tournaments; Michigan today has won a record 9 titles (though their last title was won 22 years ago in 1998). Since 2000, the most successful teams are: Boston College, with 4 titles in the last 20 tournaments (most recently in 2012), then Denver and Minnesota-Duluth, both of whom have won 3 titles in the last 20 tournaments, with Denver winning it in 2017, and Minnesota-Duluth winning it in 2018 and 2019.

So, from 1948 to 1976 (29 years), the D-1 hockey tournament comprised just 4 teams. Then, from 1977 to 1987, the tournament comprised 5 or 6 teams. In 1981, the D-1 hockey tournament became an 8-team competition. In 1988, the tournament became a 12-team competition. In 1999, the term Frozen Four was first used by the NCAA. In 2003, the present-day 16-team competition was instituted. The current 16-team tournament involves four city-venues for the Regionals (aka the first round) (in late March), and then another city-venue for the Frozen Four (in early April). Last year, the Frozen Four was held in Buffalo, NY, and the Minnesota-Duluth Bulldogs repeated as champions, defeating the Umass Minutemen 3-0. This season [2019-20], the tournament was cancelled on March 12, due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Timeline of D-1 hockey conferences…

Prior to the the first D-1 hockey tournament in 1947-48, there was one “proto-conference”: the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League. It was initially comprised of four Ivy League schools’ hockey teams: Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. The Quadrangular League allowed the four to stabilize schedules and to determine the best team of the 4, each season. Army joined in 1946, and it was re-named the Pentagonal League, a name which remained when Army left after the 1947-48 season. Army were replaced by another Ivy League team in 1948: Brown. The grouping continued on until 1954-55. But the Pentagonal League never had the clout to secure an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament (once the tournament started up in 1947-48). This was exacerbated by the fact that the Ivy League never recognized hockey as a D-1 sport. So the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League is considered an informal organization and is not recognized as an NCAA conference.

1947-48: Back when the D-1 hockey tournament started in 1947-48, D-1 hockey teams were Independent. There were 27 teams in NCAA D-1 hockey in that first season in which there was a trophy to play for {see this, en.wikipedia.org/[1947-48 D-1 hockey/Regular season]}. Of those 27 teams from 1947-48, 20 teams are still in Division I men’s hockey. Those 20 teams are: Army, Boston College, Boston U., Brown, Clarkson, Colgate, Colorado College, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Michigan, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Northeastern, Princeton, St. Lawrence, UMass, Yale.

This Independents-only set-up in D-1 hockey began to gradually change, with the belated creation of D-1 hockey conferences, first in 1950 with the now-defunct Tri-State League, then the following year of 1951 with the creation of what is now known as the WCHA…

1950: the Tri-State League begins play [conference is now defunct]. The first D-1 hockey conference was the Tri-State League (1950-72), a 3-to-6-team conference based in upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and Vermont, which featured small schools like Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Clarkson, Colgate, Williams (of Massachusetts), and Middlebury College (of Vermont). The Tri State League, despite only having a tiny number of teams (just four teams through most of the 1950s), annually received one of the two eastern bids to the NCAA tournament. The Tri-State League was able to place one team into each D-1 hockey tournament from 1952 to 1960. This accounts for the reason why both St. Lawrence and Clarkson have a considerable amount of Frozen Four appearances (9 and 7 appearances). And meanwhile, after 1951-52, the new MWCHL [WCHA], consisting initially of seven western schools (see next paragraph), was able to earn both western bids for the 4-team tournament each year. This situation, from 1950-51 up until 1959-60, left just one eastern bid available for more than two dozen eastern schools! That was unfair enough as it was, but it got worse in the 1960-61 D-1 season, with 25 Independent teams – all from the Northeast – effectively shut out of the post-season competition…because the 2 western bids for the tournament were sewn up by the WCHA, and the two eastern bids for the tournament went to St. Lawrence and Rensellaer, who were, astoundingly, two of only three teams which comprised the tiny but powerful 1960-61 Tri-State League {1961 D-1 tournament}. This made teams from the New England states feel that the Tri-State League was gaming the system. And, in fact, that is exactly why ECAC Hockey was formed later that year of 1961 (you can see more on that, two paragraphs below).

1951: the WCHA begins play. The second D-1 hockey conference was formed the following season of 1951-52: the still-active Midwest Collegiate Hockey League, or MCHL – which is now called the Western Collegiate Hockey Association, or WCHA. (The MCHL changed its name to the WCHA in 1959.) In 1951-52, there were seven teams that initially comprised the new conference: Colorado College, Denver, Michigan, Michigan State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Instantly, the MCHL had enough clout to secure two of the four D-1 hockey tournament bids. That began in the first season of the MCHL [WCHA] in 1951-52, and that situation of the conference owning half the bids to the D-1 hockey tournament lasted 25 seasons, up to 1976. When the tournament expanded to 5 or 6 teams (1977-80 tournaments), the WCHA still owned 2 bids; when the tournament expanded to 8 teams in 1981, the WCHA got 3 bids (while the ECAC got 4 bids and the relatively new conference the CCHA got 1 bid). In that era (the 1980s), the WCHA and ECAC Hockey were unquestionably the two dominant D-1 hockey conferences.

In the past, the WCHA had a whole lot of successful D-1 hockey programs in it, including Michigan, Denver, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan State, Colorado College, and Michigan Tech. Believe it or not, today, those seven teams account for 38 D-1 hockey titles – which is slightly more than half of the 72 D-1 hockey titles! But the profile of the WCHA has diminished considerably. Only one of those seven title-winning teams listed above still remains in the conference, and it is the smallest program of the seven: Michigan Tech, from the isolated Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The WCHA lost all of its big programs during the tumultuous 2010-14 NCAA realignment {see this: NCAA conference realignment/Hockey}. Basically, all the big programs fled from the WCHA, to either the new Big Ten Hockey Conference (Michigan, Michigan State, Minnesota), or to the new NCHC (North Dakota, Denver, Colorado College). Today, the WCHA has, by far, the widest geographic range of D-1 hockey conferences. The 10 teams in the WCHA are spread all the way from Alaska (Alaska-Fairbanks and Alaska-Anchorage) to Alabama (Alabama-Hunstsville) to Minnesota (Bemidji State, Minnesota State at Mankato) to Michigan (all 3 Upper Peninsula D-1 teams [see two sentences below], plus Ferris State) to Ohio (Bowling Green). The conference is frankly too vast to be economically sustainable, and that has influenced the wish of 7 of its 10 members to break off, to re-form a different conference – the CCHA – in 2021-22 (see last paragraph further below). Of the ten teams in the WCHA, four of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan Tech (3 titles), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Northern Michigan, and Bowling Green. That is a total of 8 D-1 hockey titles.

1961: ECAC Hockey begins play. In 1961, the third D-1 hockey conference was formed: the still-active ECAC Hockey. (ECAC stands for Eastern College Athletic Conference.) In 1961-62, ECAC Hockey was formed as a loose association of 28 college hockey teams in the Northeast (New England states plus New York and New Jersey). At the site called College Hockey Historical Archives, it is said…“ECAC Hockey, as it is known today, evolved slowly, starting from a dispute between the New England and New York schools. For the 1961 NCAA Tournament, the selection committee chose St. Lawrence and Rensselaer to represent the East, bypassing the Boston area schools. In the disputes that followed, it was decided to hold an eastern tournament the following season, with the tournament champion given an automatic bid to the NCAA tournament.” {-excerpt from History of ECAC Hockey (augenblick.org).} The 3 New York teams that were getting into the tournament via the small Tri-States League all joined ECAC Hockey as founding members (Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence), thus making the Tri-States League superfluous. In ECAC Hockey’s 4th season of 1964-65, the then-29-team ECAC Hockey split into Division I and Division II set-ups, with the creation of ECAC-2 (which is now defunct).

Throughout the 1961-62 to 1975-76 time period (15 seasons), ECAC Hockey and the WCHA were the only two conferences that got bids for the D-1 hockey tournament. That changed when the CCHA finally got an automatic bid in 1976-77 (see 2 paragraphs below). In the 1980-81 to 1983-84 time period, ECAC Hockey was at its most powerful, with control of 4 of the 8 bids to the tournament. But that changed when 5 ECAC Hockey teams left to form Hockey East in 1985 (see 3 paragraphs below).

The ECAC was the only D-1 hockey conference that was unchanged by the 2010-14 realignment. Today, the 12-team ECAC Hockey is a rather unusual college conference, as it includes within it all six of the D-1 Ivy League hockey teams (Brown, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Yale [Penn and Columbia do not field D-1 hockey teams]). ECAC Hockey has teams spread through 6 states in the Northeast and in New England. Six teams are from New York: Clarkson (Potsdam, NY), Colgate (Hamilton, NY), Cornell (Ithaca, NY), Rensselaer (Troy, NY), St. Lawrence (Canton, NY), Union College (Schenectady, NY). Two teams are from Connecticut: Quinnipiac (Hamden, Greater New Haven, CT) and Yale (New Haven, NY). One team is from Massachusetts: Harvard (Cambridge, MA). One team is from Rhode Island: Brown (Providence, RI). One team is from New Hampshire: Dartmouth (Hanover, NH). And one team is from New Jersey: Princeton (Princeton, NJ). Of the 12 teams in ECAC Hockey, five of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Cornell (2 titles), Rensellaer (2 titles), Harvard, Union College, Yale. That is a total of 7 D-1 hockey titles.

1971: the CCHA begins play [the conference is now defunct, but set to be revived in 2021]. The CCHA had less than half-a-dozen members for its first few seasons, including Bowling Green, Ohio State, Lake Superior State, and Western Michigan. The CCHA was initially full of small programs, and did not get an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament until its sixth season, in 1976-77. The teams in the old CCHA were primarily from Michigan and Ohio. In 1981, the CCHA got much more respectable, with the addition of 3 title-winning programs from the state of Michigan: Michigan, Michigan State, and Michigan Tech. But 3 decades later, the D-1 conference realignment of 2010-14 decimated the CCHA. The CCHA disbanded after the 2012-13 season. However, plans are now set to revive the CCHA in 2021 {see last paragraph, further below}.

1984: Hockey East begins play. Hockey East was formed in 1984-85, by five former ECAC teams: Boston College, Boston University, New Hampshire, Northeastern, and Providence. These 5 decided to create their own league, because of scheduling concerns (they feared that the Ivy League teams in the ECAC would form their own conference, but that never came about). It also cannot be denied that the Hockey East set-up has decreased travel costs among its member-teams (seeing as it is a New-England-only-based conference). The 11-team Hockey East conference has teams spread throughout all of the 6 New England states, including 5 teams from Greater Boston. Hockey East teams are: Boston College, Boston University, and Northeastern from Boston, MA; and two more teams from the Greater Boston region: Merrimack (North Andover, MA) and UMass-Lowell (Lowell, MA); UMass (Amherst, MA), Maine (Orono, ME), New Hampshire (Durham, NH), Providence (Providence, RI), UConn (located in Storrs, CT but the hockey team plays 25 miles west in Hartford, CT), and Vermont (Burlington, VT). D-1 hockey title-winning teams from Hockey East are: Boston College (5 titles), Boston University (5 titles), Maine (2 titles), Providence. That is a total of 13 D-1 hockey titles.

1998: Atlantic Hockey begins play (as the MAAC). The 1998-99 season saw the creation of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC). In June 2003, MAAC Hockey broke off from the rest of the MAAC, and reorganized as Atlantic Hockey. In 2004, the Atlantic Hockey conference was granted an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. Atlantic Hockey is comprised of small D-1 programs, 10 of 11 of which are in the Northeast (except for Air Force Academy, who play in Colorado Springs, CO). Here are the 11 teams in the Atlantic League: Air Force; American International College [AIC] (Springfield, MA); Army (West Point, NY); Bentley (Waltham, MA); Canisius (Buffalo, NY); Holy Cross (Worcester, MA); Mercyhurst (Erie, PA); Niagara (Lewiston, NY); Robert Morris (Moon Township, Greater Pittsburgh, PA), Rochester Institute of Technology [RIT] (Henrietta, Greater Rochester, NY), Sacred Heart (located in Fairfield, CT but the hockey team plays 6 miles east in Bridgeport, CT). None of the eleven teams in Atlantic Hockey have won the D-1 hockey title. In fact, in the 16 seasons that Atlantic Hockey has had an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament, only one team in the Atlantic Hockey conference has ever advanced to the Frozen Four…that was RIT, in 2010.

March 2011: the creation of the Big Ten Hockey Conference is announced. The Big Ten Hockey Conference would begin play two-and-a-half years later in 2013-14. That announcement started up the whole, sordid conference realignment in D-1 hockey. The roots of this was the inclusion of Penn State as a D1-hockey team (Penn State debuted as an Independent in D-1 hockey in 2012-13). The shakeup in D-1 hockey conferences occurred in much the same way (and in nearly the same time-period) as the recent realignments in NCAA D-1 football and in NCAA D-1 basketball. After the dust had settled in D-1 hockey, there were 6 conferences instead of 5, and one conference was dissolved – the Central Collegiate Hockey Associaition [CCHA](/see 3 paragraphs above; also see 2 paragraphs below). The Big Ten D-1 Hockey Conference was instituted in the 2013–14 season, combining Penn State with Michigan State, Michigan, and Ohio State from the defunct CCHA, plus Minnesota and Wisconsin from the severely-weakened WCHA. That formed a six-member Big Ten Hockey Conference. Four seasons later, Notre Dame joined Big Ten hockey in 2017-18, to make it a 7-team conference. Here are the locations of the 7 teams in Big Ten Hockey: Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI); Michigan State (East Lansing, MI); Minnesota (Minneapolis, MN); Notre Dame (Notre Dame, Greater West Bend, IN); Ohio State (Columbus, OH); Penn State (State College, PA); Wisconsin (Madison, WI). Four of the seven teams in the Big Ten Hockey Conference have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan (with a record 9 titles), Wisconsin (6 titles), Minnesota (5 titles), Michigan State (3 titles). That is a total of 23 D-1 hockey titles, which is the most of any D-1 hockey conference, despite its small membership-size.

July 2011: the creation of the NCHC is announced. The NCHC was formed as a reaction to the establishment of the Big Ten Hockey Conference. Basically, the 8 future NCHC teams fled two conferences (the WCHA and the CCHA) which had a majority of small-program-teams. Those 8 teams did this in order to consolidate in a conference with other medium- or large-sized D-1 hockey programs. This, in order to not be overshadowed by the new 800-pound gorilla in the room, the Big Ten Hockey Conference. So four months after Big Ten Hockey was announced, 6 schools from the the WCHA announced their intention of leaving the WCHA, to form a new D-1 hockey conference, to be called the National Collegiate Hockey Conference, or NCHC. Those schools were Colorado College (Colorado Springs, CO); Denver (Denver, CO); Miami (of Ohio) (Oxford, OH); Minnesota-Duluth (Duluth, MN); North [Dakota (Grand Forks, ND); and Omaha (Omaha, NE). A few months later, those six were joined by two more: St. Cloud State (St. Cloud, MN) [also formerly of the WCHA]; and Western Michigan (Kalamazoo, MI) [who would be leaving the soon-to-be-defunct CCHA]. The 8-team NCHC has four teams that have won D-1 hockey titles: North Dakota (with 8 titles), Denver (also with 8 titles), Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles including 2019), Colorado College (2 titles). That is a total of 21 D-1 hockey titles [2nd-most].

February 2020: the revival of the CCHA is announced. (The CCHA originally existed as a D1-hockey conference from 1971 to 2013.) The CCHA will be re-formed, starting in 2021-22. Seven schools, which comprise 70% of the WCHA, announced their intention to start a new D-1 hockey conference, adopting the name of the old CCHA. The 7 teams: Bowling Green (Bowling Green, Greater Toledo, OH); Ferris State (Big Rapids, MI); Lake Superior State (Sault Ste. Marie, Upper Peninsula, MI); and Northern Michigan (Marquette, Upper Peninsula, MI) (all of whom were previously members of the old CCHA when it disbanded in 2013); Michigan Tech (Houghton, Upper Peninsula, MI) (who were in the original CCHA three seasons, from 1981-84), plus Bemidji State (Bemidji, MN) and Minnesota State (Mankato, MN). Now, in their announcement of the conference-shift, there is only talk of “improving geographical alignment” {see this, from USCHO.com}. But what it all really boils down to is this…because of travel costs, those 7 Upper Midwest teams want to break away from three remote teams: the two D-1 hockey teams from Alaska (Alaska-Anchorage and Alaska-Fairbanks), and the D-1 team from northern Alabama (Alabama-Huntsville). As Adam Wodon said at College Hockey News.com…“the three “leftovers” here: Alaska, Alaska-Anchorage and Alabama-Huntsville. I think there’s a pretty clear consensus that everyone feels badly for those programs, and no one wants D-1 to lose teams, but that the other seven schools had to do what they had to do. The path of least resistance for shedding those three schools, was to leave and form a new conference. It was far easier than just kicking them out of the existing WCHA. So now those three will be left on their own, basically nomads. The WCHA could exist in name only, but it wouldn’t matter. With only three teams it wouldn’t get an automatic NCAA bid. Those programs are in trouble, let’s face it.”…{-excerpt from Forget the Name, New-CCHA Will Grapple With Bigger Issues, on Feb. 19 2020, at collegehockeynews.com.}
___
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Thanks to contributors at en.wikipedia.org/List of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team; en.wikipedia.org/List of NCAA Division I men’s ice hockey champions.

March 20, 2020

NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most Tournament Appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams) (81 seasons: 1939 to 2019).

Filed under: NCAA Men's Basketball — admin @ 2:11 pm

ncaa_mens_basketball_tournament_all-time_appearances_map_119-teams-with-most_march-madness-appearances_1939-to-2019_81-seasons_post_c_.gif
NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most tournament appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams/81 seasons [1939 to 2019])



By Bill Turianski on 20 March 2020; twitter.com/billsportsmaps.

Links…
Source: NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school (en.wikipedia.org).

With the cancellation of the 2020 NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament, I had some extra space to fill. So I decided to make a map I had wanted to make for years.

The map shows all teams (119 teams) which have qualified for the NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament at least 10 times. On the map, each team’s Total-Appearances is shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. (Three teams – St. John’s, UConn, and Villanova – have both their venue-locations shown on the map.) The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total appearances, the larger the circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances. The team-color-circles are almost all centered on each team’s location-dot…unless I could not fit it in, due to geography and “team congestion”. That happened on the East Coast (in the NYC-metro area, and particularly in Philadelphia, but also in Massachusetts/RI, in DC/Maryland, and with respect to North Carolina/Duke). It also happened on the SF-Bay & LA parts of the California coast, up in the Seattle area, and in the southwest-Ohio/Cincinnati region.

I had to cut it off at 10 appearances. I would have kept going, but it was becoming too hard to fit in teams, and still make the map readable.

At the far-left-hand side of the map-page, I made a long chart, which shows 5 things…
A) Each team’s Tournament Appearances Rank.
B) Name of school and its primary logo (or wordmark) for their Athletics teams.
C) Tournament Appearances (with last appearance noted).
D) Final Four Appearances (with last Final Four noted).
E)  Titles (with last title noted).

The map encompasses all 81 seasons of the tournament (1939-2019). The map is based on a list at Wikipedia {NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school}. I deviated from the list in just one way…Teams which qualified for the 2020 tournament, before the tournament was cancelled on Friday the 13th of March, do not have those 2020 bids count toward their total appearances-tally. I did that because it wouldn’t be fair to all the teams from the bigger conferences that never got to play in their tournaments, or all the teams that would have been selected as at-large bids on selection-Sunday.
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-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (commons.wikimedia.org).
-Thanks to the contributors to the pages at en.wikipedia.org, 2020 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament.

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