July 4, 2020

1929 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: Philadelphia Athletics. With illustrated article: The 1929 and 1930 Philadelphia Athletics: the most overlooked team in baseball history.

Filed under: Baseball,Baseball: 1929 MLB season,Retro maps — admin @ 12:00 pm

1929 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: Philadelphia Athletics

By Bill Turianski on the 4th of July 2020;

Sources…, 1929 AL season; 1929 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-Most logos:
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Lost in History [the 1929-31 Philadelphia Athletics] (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at[vault]).
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at

Links to the other 4 maps in this category (MLB retro maps from the 1920s)…
-1925 MLB map (Pittsburgh Pirates, champions; w/ an article on MLB attendance, by team, circa the 1920s).
-1926 MLB map (St. Louis Cardinals, champions; w/ a chart of 1920s US city populations & cities with MLB teams).
-1927 MLB map (New York Yankees, champions; w/ an illustrated article on the 1927 NY Yankees).
-1928 MLB map (New York Yankees, champions; w/ an illustrated article on the 1928 NY Yankees).

    The 1929 and 1930 Philadelphia Athletics: the most overlooked team in baseball history

The 1927 and 1928 New York Yankees are remembered as one of the greatest, if not the greatest, teams of all time. But in 1929, the Yankees finished a distant 18 games behind the Philadelphia Athletics of owner-and-manager Connie Mack. The Yankees also failed to win the AL pennant in the next two seasons of 1930 and ’31. So, not to take anything away from the “Murderer’s Row” Yankees, but something is going on here that needs to be put into perspective. Let me ask you this…if the 1927 and ’28 Yankees, led of course by Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig, were the greatest team of all time, then why didn’t the Yankees of the late-1920s-and-early-1930s win more World Series titles? Because Gehrig was still young and healthy, and Ruth was still in his prime.

It may surprise some to know that the Yankees of Ruth and Gehrig won only 4 World Series titles in the 12 seasons the two played together (in 1923, in 1927, in 1928, and in 1932). And that first Yankee title in 1923 was won when Gehrig wasn’t even a starter. So what stood in the way of the “Murderer’s Row” Yankees from winning more titles? The answer is the Philadelphia Athletics, who won 3 straight American League pennants, from 1929 to 1931. The Yankees finished 18 games behind the A’s in 1929. Then the Yankees finished 16 games behind the A’s in 1930. Then the Yankees finished 13.5 games behind the A’s in 1931. Heck, in 1930, the Yankees didn’t even finish in 2nd place (the Washington Senators did).

There are a couple of reasons why the dominant 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics are so forgotten. First of all, the 1929-30 Philadelphia A’s have always been overshadowed by the 1927 and ’28 New York Yankees, and the long-ball legacy of the Ruth-&-Gehrig-led Bronx Bombers. And the second reason? It also has to do with New York…the largely New York-based sports media that basically ignored how great the 1929 (and 1930) Philadelphia Athletics actually were. As famed sportswriter Shirley Povich said, “The A’s were victims of the Yankee mystique. Perhaps the 1927 Yankees were the greatest team of all time. But if there was a close second, perhaps an equal, it was those A’s. They are the most overlooked team in baseball.”

The core of the Philadelphia Athletics in 1929 and ’30 was four Hall of Fame players…the slugging threesome of outfielder Al Simmons, catcher Mickey Cochrane, and 1st baseman Jimmie Foxx, plus pitcher Lefty Grove. Grove was one of the hardest-throwing left-handers ever (so said another great flamethrower, Walter Johnson). Lefty Grove had the best ERA in the AL for 4 straight seasons (1929-32). In 2001, Lefty Grove was named the second-best pitcher of all time, by Sabermetrics-founder Bill James. This foursome all came together in a 2-year span (1924-25), under Connie Mack (aka the Tall Tactician), who had a keen eye for talent, and an extensive scouting network.

Granted, if you want to talk pure hitting numbers, circa 1926 to 1932, the Philadelphia Athletics, for all their considerable offensive clout, were no match for New York Yankees. But no team was (and no team has been, ever). The Yankees absolutely dominated offensively between 1926 and 1932, leading not just the AL, but all of MLB, in scoring, in 6 of those 7 years. {You can see more on 1927 Yankees offensive stats in my 1927 map-&-article, here.} But home runs might get the headlines, but pitching and defense are ultimately the keys to a successful ball club. And the Philadelphia Athletics were a much more complete team, because their fielding – and especially their pitching – was superior. The 1929-to-’31 Athletics committed 137 less errors than the Yankees did in that same time period {see this, from[History of the Philadelphia Athletics]}. And the Athletics’ pitching from 1926 to 1932 was simply in a class by itself. In those 7 years, the Athletics had a total Pitching WAR (Wins After Replacement) that was 142.5, or a yearly average of 20.3 Pitching WAR. The Yankees in the same time period of 1926-32 had a total Pitching WAR of 65.2, or a yearly average of just 9.3 Pitching WAR. That is 11.0 less Pitching WAR, per year, from the Yankees, compared to the Athletics. It must be conceded that, in 1929 and ’30, the Yankees’ pitching staff was transitioning from the aged Herb Pennock and Waite Hoyt, to the young Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez, and the Yankees’ Pitching WAR in 1929 and ’30 was dead-last in the AL. But in all those 7 years (of 1926 to 1932), the Athletics pitchers had a better Pitching WAR than the Yankees in all but one season, in 1927, and that was by only 0.4 WAR {this data was found in this article at, which is also linked to below}. It wasn’t just the A’s ace southpaw Lefty Grove, with a 7.1 Pitching WAR in 1929, that was so effective for the Philadelphia Athletics, there were two other standouts: Rube Walberg (6.1 Pitching WAR in 1929), and George Earnshaw (5.2 Pitching WAR in 1929). Grove and Walberg, using WAR, were among the 5 best pitchers in the AL from 1926 to ’32. From 1928 to ’32 (5 seasons) Lefty Grove had an astounding .795 winning percentage, with 128 wins and just 33 losses.

And there is this…“no New York Yankees team over any five-year period— not with Ruth, not with Gehrig, not with DiMaggio, not with Mantle, not with Jeter—ever had as high a winning percentage as the 1928–32 Philadelphia Athletics.” {Quotation from article by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte at, which is linked to in the next paragraph below}. In the 5-year-span of 1928-32, the Philadelphia Athletics went 505-258 (.657). The Philadelphia A’s of that time-period also were the first ever team to win 100 games in a season for 3 consecutive seasons (1929-31).

Some flat out proclaim that Connie Mack’s Philadelphia Athletics of the late-’20s/early-’30s were simply better than the Yankees of Ruth & Gehrig…
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at

-Lost In History – From 1929 to 1931, the Philadelphia A’s were the best team in baseball, with four future Hall of Famers and a lineup that dominated Babe Ruth’s legendary Yankees. So why hasn’t anyone heard of them (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at[vault]).

(Note: the above article by William Nack at Sports Illustrated is an absolute gem, but there is one discrepancy that I need to point out. Nack says, in reference to the New York-vs-Philadelphia rivalry that “In the early days of the 20th century Philadelphia was the nation’s second city, and its teams’ most memorable clashes on baseball diamonds–first against the Giants and later against the Yankees–expressed the city’s aspiration to reclaim its place as the nation’s center.” However, Philadelphia was definitely not the nation’s second city back then…Chicago was. Philadelphia was supplanted by Chicago as the second-most populous city in the USA as early as the 1890s {see this, from en.wikipedia}. I have 1920 US city populations listed on the map-page (at the upper-left-corner of the map), and they are US Census Bureau figures. Here are the 1920 city population figures from the US Census Bureau…Top 3 US cities’ populations in 1920, NYC: 5.6 million; Chicago: 2.7 million; Philadelphia: 1.8 million {source:[Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1920]. I know it is a small point, and it does not diminish the author’s underlying theme, namely, that Philadelphians had (and certainly still have) a deep-rooted chip on their shoulders about the preeminence of New York City, and Philadelphia’s lost status as the former largest city in the country.)

I think there is another reason why the 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics have been effectively banished from the collective memory of baseball fans. And that is this: the Philadelphia Athletics all but ceased to exist when the franchise moved to Kansas City, in 1955. Then the franchise moved again, 13 years later, in 1968, to Oakland, California. There was a diminished interest for the old team, back in Philly. After all, Philadelphia still had a major league ball club (the Phillies), so there never was that culture of loss and nostalgia that defines the Brooklyn Dodgers’ hallowed place in baseball history. There are many, many books written about the Brooklyn Dodgers. There are hardly any books written about the Philadelphia Athletics. Only the old-timers who had seen the greatness of the 1929-30 Athletics first-hand, there in Philadelphia, were keeping the flame alive, so to speak. The following generations of baseball fans in Philadelphia (and elsewhere) never were adequately told about the great Athletics teams in Philadelphia.

Even the Oakland A’s themselves have ignored, and still ignore, the greatness of the 1929-30 Philadelphia Athletics…
If you go to an Oakland A’s game at the Oakland Coliseum, the only vestige you will see of the 5-time-World-Series-title-winning-/-9-time-AL-pennant-winning Philadelphia Athletics is in the present-day team’s uniforms: the Athletics’ Gothic-A cap-logo and their shoulder-patch elephant-logo (which dates to 1902). Because sadly, the Oakland A’s do not, in any way, acknowledge their own franchise’s 5 World Series titles that were won in Philadelphia. Here is the Oakland A’s World Series-titles banner outside their ballpark…it only shows the 4 World Series titles that the franchise won in Oakland. In other words, the Oakland Athletics themselves do not even acknowledge the greatness that was the Philadelphia Athletics.

And if you think no other transplanted MLB teams do this, well, here is what the Los Angeles Dodgers have at their Dodger Stadium…a set of banners showing every Dodgers World Series title, including the 1955 WS title won when the team was still in Brooklyn. Also at Dodger Stadium are giant murals of Dodgers MVPs and Cy Young winners [both of which include Brooklyn Dodgers players]. There is also a giant World Series-ring sculpture of the 1955 Brooklyn Dodgers there at Chavez Ravine {here /here is where I found the last three images: The Artful Dodgers (at} Remember, this is an MLB franchise (the Dodgers) that is a class act, but still…all this tribute to their former location (in Brooklyn), and yet the Brooklyn Dodgers only won ONE TITLE. Meanwhile, the Philadelphia Athletics won 5 TITLES…and the Oakand A’s, the MLB franchise that originated as the Philadelphia Athletics 120 years ago, shows absolutely no tribute – at all – to where they came from (Philadelphia), and how great they were, way back then. Pathetic. Well, at least one fan in the Bay Area agrees with me…{Concept for a new banner at the Coliseum – 4/21/2020 (from the A’s Fan Radio site,

    The Philadelphia Athletics beat the Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1, to win the 1929 World Series

Before Game 1 (on October 8 1929 at Wrigley Field in Chicago), the big question was how the Cubs’ right-handed sluggers would fare against the Athletics’ ace pitcher, the southpaw Lefty Grove (Grove was one of the the best pitchers in 1929, with a 20-6 record, and an MLB-best 2.81 ERA). But Philadelphia Athletics manager Connie Mack shocked everyone, by keeping Lefty Grove on the bench, and starting the unheralded, and seemingly washed-up 35-year-old side-arm junk-ball hurler Howard Ehmke. (In August, after the A’s had clinched the Pennant, Ehmke had stayed in Philadelphia during an A’s late-season road trip, with the job of scouting out the Cubs hitters when they came to town to play the Philadelphia Phillies. So Connie Mack had planned on this surprise move for some time.)

The Cubs right-handed power hitters were nullified by the soft-throwing right-hander Ehmke. Howard Ehmke struck out 13 (a World Series record that stood for 24 years), and allowed just one unearned run. The Athletics’ slugger Jimmy Foxx broke the scoreless game in the 7th inning with a solo HR, and the Athletics won Game 1 by the score of 3 to 1. {Here is a nice 2:28 video on Howard Ehmke, Philadelphia Athletics Howard Ehmke, Hero of the 1929 World Series, uploaded by Philadelphia Sports History at}

In Game 2 (also at Wrigley Field in Chicago), the Athletics broke ahead with a 6-run lead, with HRs by Jimmy Foxx and Al Simmons. In the bottom of the 5th inning, A’s starter George Earnshaw got into trouble, and Connie Mack put Lefty Grove on, in relief. Grove pitched 4 and 1/3 innings of scoreless ball, and the Athletics won Game 2 by the score of 9 to 3. (And the A’s pitchers struck out 13 Cubs, again.)

In Game 3 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia), the Cubs beat the Athletics 3 to 1. The Cubs won on the strength of Pitcher Guy Bush, who allowed 1 run in 9 innings. The Cubs scored 3 runs in the 6th inning, with 2 runs driven in by a Kiki Cuyler single, and one run driven in by a Rogers Hornsby single. Athletics Pitcher George Earnshaw gave up just 1 earned run in 9 innings for the loss.

In Game 4 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia), Connie Mack stuck to his right-handed pitchers policy, starting another journeyman, Jack Quinn. But Quinn gave up 7 runs in 6 innings. The Cubs had an 8-0 lead when the Athletics came to bat in the 7th inning. 13 batters later, the Cubs found themselves trailing 10-8. {Via Old-Time Baseball Photos on twitter, here is a photo of Mule Haas sliding into home for his Inside-the-park HR, which pulled the A’s to within one run at 8-7.} That 10-8 score stood, as Lefty Grove pitched two innings of perfect relief to clinch the victory. The eight-run comeback by the Philadelphia Athletics on October 12, 1929 is still the greatest comeback in MLB post-season history. In the illustration below, you can see a batter-by-batter re-cap of the legendary 7th inning 8-run comeback by the Philadelphia A’s (which featured 15 batters, 10 runs, and two balls lost in the sun by beleaguered Cubs Center Fielder Hack Wilson). {Here is a brief article at on the greatest comebacks in MLB regular season & post-season history, Biggest Comeback Wins in Baseball History (by Alex Bonilla at on Jan 29 2019).}

Game 5 (at Shibe Park in Philadelphia). Connie Mack started Howard Ehmke again, but this time Ehmke was ineffective, and was replaced by Rube Walberg in the 4th inning, with the A’s down 2-0. That score stood until the 9th inning, with the A’s down to their last two outs. Then, for the second straight game, the Athletics produced a comeback rally. Max Bishop singled, then Mule Haas’ HR made it 2-2. Cochrane grounded out, but Al Simmons doubled, and after an intentional walk to Jimmie Foxx, Bing Miller doubled, to score Simmons and clinch the Series.

Below: 1929 World Series: Philadelphia Athletics beat Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1; the Series included the greatest comeback in MLB post-season history (A’s come back from 8 runs down to win Game 4, 10-8)...
Photo and Image credits above – Logos from Segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics WS program cover, from Segment of 1929 Chicago Cubs WS program from Shibe Park [aerial photo from 1929 photo], unattributed at[@MLBcathedrals]. Wrigley Field [aerial photo from 1929], AP Photo via Mickey Cochrane, Connie Mack and Lefty Grove [photo circa 1929], AP Photo via Small illustration of segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics road jersey, by Marc Okkonen at Howard Ehmke [photo from 1929], photo by George Rinhart/Corbis via Getty Images at Jimmie Foxx [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at Al Simmons [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at Photo segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics home uniform, from 1929 WS Shibe Park unauthorized temporary bleachers atop neighboring row houses, colorized photo unattributed at[@BSmile]. Guy Bush [photo from 1929], photo by Sporting News via Rogers Photo Archive via Kiki Cuyler [photo from 1929], unattributed at Rogers Horsnby [photo circa 1929], unattributed at Al Simmons, Jimmie Foxx [photo from 1930], unattributed at Jimmy Dykes, Joe Boley, Max Bishop [photo from 1929], photo by Hank Olen/NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images at Mule Haas [photo from 1928], from National Baseball Hall of Fame at Bing Miller [Fleer retro-trading card from 1960; photo circa 1929], from A’s players storm the field to congratulate for his Series-winning RBI, photo by National Baseball Hall of Fame Library/MLB via Getty Images via

Post-script to the 1929 World Series title won by the Philadelphia Athletics…
Fifteen days after the Philadelphia Athletics’ thrilling World Series victory, the bottom dropped out of the US economy, with Black Tuesday. That was October 29, 1929, when the Stock Market crashed, ushering in the decade-long Great Depression. For the Philadelphia Athletics, this led to the eventual dismantling of their championship team. While the Athletics would go on to win the World Series again, in the following year of 1930 (beating the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to 2), and then win the AL pennant for a 3rd straight time in 1931, the Depression put an end to any further glory for the Philadelphia Athletics. To avoid financial ruin of the ball club, owner/manager Connie Mack was forced to sell off his prize players for cash (and mediocre players). In 1932, Al Simmons went to the Chicago White Sox. In 1933, Lefty Grove went to the Boston Red Sox, and Mickey Cochrane went to the Detroit Tigers. And in 1935, Jimmie Foxx also went to the Red Sox. The Philadelphia Athletics never contended for another AL pennant. Connie Mack continued on as owner and manager, slipping into dementia. But none dared challenge him, and the Philadelphia Athletics declined to the point where it became inevitable that the franchise would move. Some people say the wrong baseball team moved out of Philadelphia, and I could not agree more.

1929 MLB stats Leaders.
ERA: Lefty Grove, Philadelphia Athletics. Wins: George Earnshaw, Philadelphia Athletics. Batting Avg: Lefty O’Doul, Philadelphia Athletics. HR: Babe Ruth, New York Yankees. RBI: Hack Wilson, Chicago Cubs. OPS: Rogers Hornsby, Chicago Cubs. Wins Above Replacement (WAR) for Position Players: Rogers Hornsby, Chicago Cubs. WAR for Pitchers: Willis Hudlin, Cleveland Indians.

Photo credits on map page…
Banner (Philadelphia Athletics, 1929 World Series Champions)…Photo segment of 1929 Philadelphia Athletics home uniform, from 1929 Philadelphis Athletics WS winners’ ring, unattributed at 1929 Philadelphia WS press pin, from 1929 WS ticket [to 1929 WS game 5 at Shibe Park], from 1929-34 Philadelphia A’s cap, from 1929 Philadelphia Athletics uniforms, by Marc Okkonen at[al_1929_philadelphia]. 1929

Connie Mack [photo circa 1929], unattributed at Al Simmons [photo circa 1928], 1961 Golden Press Card via Jimmy Foxx [photo circa 1932], colorized photo unattributed at Lefty Grove [US Postal Service Stamp; original image circa 1930], from Rube Walberg [photo circa 1929], photo by Getty Images via George Earnshaw [photo from 1928], unattributed at Mickey Cochrane [photo circa 1930], unattributed at pinterest.como. Jimmy Dykes [photo circa 1927], unattributed at[thread: Philadelphia Athletics 1928-32].
1929 MLB Stats leaders…
Lefty Grove [photo circa 1929], photo by Getty Images via George Earnshaw [photo circa 1929], photo unattributed at Lefty O’Doul [photo from 1930], photo unattributed at Babe Ruth [photo circa 1928], photo unattributed at Hack Wilson [photo circa 1929], photo by AP via Rogers Hornsby [photo from 1929], colorized photo unattributed at Willis Hudlin [photo from 1928], photo unattributed at[top-100-indians-34-willis-hudlin].

Thanks to all at the following links…
-University of Texas at Austin online archive (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection),, 1928 AL season1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Attendances. Source:
-Lost in History [the 1929-31 Philadelphia Athletics] (by William Nack from Aug 1996 at[vault]).
-Connie Mack’s Second Great Athletics Team: Eclipsed by the Ruth-Gehrig Yankees, But Even Better (by Bryan Soderholm-Difatte, from 2013, at
Most logos from:,[MLB logos].
1929-34 Philadelphia A’s cap, from Photo of 1929 NY Giants jersey from Alamy at Photo of Detroit Tigers 1929 road ball cap from Segment of Philadelphia Athletics 1929 home jersey, from

June 19, 2020

2019-20 Serie A (Italy/1st division) June 2020 restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in Italian football, 2019-20 attendance data, seasons-in-1st-division-by-club & major titles listed.

Filed under: Italy — admin @ 7:40 am

2019-20 Serie A (Italy/1st division) June 2020 restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in Italian football, 2019-20 attendance data, seasons-in-1st-division-by-club & major titles listed

By Bill Turianski on 19 June 2020;

-Teams, etc…2019-20 Serie A (
-Serie A page at
-Table, fixtures, results, stats, etc…Serie A/summary (
-English-speaking coverage of Italian football…Forza Italian

Serie Re-start on 20 June 2020… {Table.}
Of course, all games will be played behind closed doors, but Italian football authorities have set their sights on allowing a limited number of fans to watch Serie A games before the projected end of the season on 2 August. {See this, Italy Targets Quick Return Of Football Fans To Stadiums (by Stanislaw Touchot at AFP via}

Most teams in the 2019-20 Serie A have played 26 games; 8 teams have played 25 games. In other words, there are 12 rounds of matches still to play, plus four games from previous rounds.

Juventus, who have won 8 straight Serie A titles, hold a one point lead over Lazio. (Lazio, of Rome, have won the title twice, last in 2000.) Internazionale are in 3rd place (5 points above Atalanta in 4th), and are a virtual lock for a coveted UEFA Champions League Group Stage berth – Inter are currently 9 points above 5th place (with a game in hand). The fourth and final UEFA CL Group Stage spot will be contested between upstart Atalanta (of Bergamo) and Napoli, with top-scoring team Atalanta currently in 4th place, 3 points above Napoli. (Atalanta have scored 70 goals in 25 games [2.8 goals per game], which is, amazingly, 10 more than Lazio, and 20 more than Juventus.)

As for the relegation battle, two of the three sides to be relegated are probably already set…Brescia are dead last, and are a near-insurmountable 10 points from safety; SPAL are in 19th place and are 8 points from safety. So the final relegation spot looks to be contested between 5 teams…Lecce (who are currently in the relegation-zone, but only on goal-difference) and the four sides just above the drop-zone: Udinese, Torino, Sampdoria, and Genoa.

Oh, and in case you’re wondering, Juventus plays Lazio in the second-to-last round, on 20 July at Allianz Stadium in Turin. That could very well decide who wears the Scudetto next season.

Aspects of the map page…
The main feature of the map page is a location-map of the 20 clubs in the 2019-20 Serie A. The main map also shows the 20 Regions of Italy, and the 11 largest cities in the country. {Metropolitan populations are from 2019 and are from this source, Metropolitan cities of Italy (} At the far left is a timeline of COVID-19 in Italian football, that features an outbreak map of Italy’s COVID-19 pandemic {here is the original source of the COVID-19 outbreak map of Italy, File:COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Italy (Density).svg (by Facquis at}. The COVID-19 timeline is repeated in the section below.

Below the COVID-19 timeline section on the map-page is a map of: Regions of Italy with 2019-20 Serie A clubs. At the far right of the map page is a chart that shows the following…2019-20 Serie A attendance by club; Stadium-capacity and 2019-20 Percent-capacity by club; 2018-19 finishes by club; Seasons in 1st division by club; Italian titles (and last title won), by club.

And a the foot of the map-page are the 20 crests of the current Serie A clubs, arranged by average attendance (the larger the badge, the higher the average crowd-size).

Italy: 2019-20 Serie A COVID-19 Pandemic Timeline in Italian football
31 January 2020:
The first 2 cases of COVID-19 in Italy were confirmed in Rome: two Chinese tourists (from Wuhan).

Also on On 31 January, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a 6-month state of emergency (Italy was the first EU country to take this measure). At Italian airports, thermal scanners and temperature checks, for arriving travelers, were put in place.

February 2020:
In February, eleven municipalities in northern Italy were placed under quarantine, after being identified as the centres of the two main clusters in the country. The majority of positive cases in other regions traced back to these two clusters.

19 February 2020:
UEFA Champions League tie of Atalanta v Valencia (played in Milan) was retrospectively blamed by local civic and medical authorities for contributing to the very high concentration of coronavirus cases in Atalanta’s home-city of Bergamo. Several fans and Valencia players also had positive diagnoses after returning from the game.

8 March 2020:
Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte expanded the quarantine to all of Lombardy and 14 other northern provinces.

9 March 2020:
On the following day, the quarantine was extended to all of Italy, placing more than 60 million people in quarantine. All sport in Italy was suspended until at least 3 April.

10 & 11 March:
Atalanta played in Madrid, Spain, because UEFA played UEFA Champions League matches, on 10 March (RB Leipzig v Tottenham Hotspur; Valencia v Atalanta); and on 11 March (Liverpool v Atlético Madrid, Paris Saint-Germain v Borussia Dortmund).

18 May 2020:
Italian Football Federation (FIGC) announces that Coppa Italia semi-finals will resume on 13 June, and the Semi A season will resume on Saturday 20 June. The Italian government approved health and safety measures suggested by the FIGC, plus a backup plan in case the league has to be stopped again. There are 12 rounds of matches still to play, plus four games from previous rounds.

Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of Italy by TUBS, at File:Italy provincial location map.svg.
-Globe-map (orthographic map) of Italy by Rob984 at File:EU-Italy (orthographic projection).svg.
-Map of COVID-19 cases in Italy, by Facquis at File:COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Italy (Density).svg (
-Blank map of Italy’s Regions by Gigillo83 at File:Italian regions white (with new provinces).svg (
-Populations of Italian cities’ metro-areas from Metropolitan cities of Italy (
-Attendances on map page from[Serie A].
-Seasons in Italian 1st division:;
-Length of current spell in Serie A:
-General info, crests, kit illustrations, from 2019-20 Serie A (
-COVID timeline info from several sources including COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (, Coronavirus: Italy extends emergency measures nationwide (, and Coronavirus: All sport in Italy suspended because of outbreak (

June 4, 2020

English football clubs, 2019-20 season – After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map, with 134 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.

Filed under: >134 ENG clubs on map — admin @ 1:47 pm

English football clubs – Map: After the COVID-19 Pandemic Suspension / All clubs in England (and Wales) that drew over 1,000 per game in 2019-20, at the season’s suspension. Map with 133 clubs. Includes Restart information, by League.

By Bill Turianski on 4 June 2020/ updated on 9 June and 17 June 2020;

The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20 (average attendance from home domestic league matches, up to the seasons being suspended in mid-March 2020).
The attendance figures are final, because all remaining fixtures will be played behind closed doors. Or, in the case of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th-levels, all remaining fixtures will not be played.

Further below are league-by-league descriptions of restarts, or league-cancellations. (Note: Information on Restarts (or league-cancellations) can also be found at the top-centre of the map.)

Near the foot of this post is various info on the clubs on the map…Which clubs drew above 40-K. Which clubs drew above 20-K. Which clubs are new to the map, as compared to last season (King’s Lynn Town, Spennymoor Town, Wealdstone). And the breakdown of clubs on the map, by league-level.

2020 COVID-19 Pandemic in English football:
-On 13th March 2020, the Premier League season was suspended.
-The English Football League (2nd, 3rd & 4th divisions) was also suspended on 13 March.
-In the 7th level, the Isthmian Leagues and the Southern Leagues were also suspended on 13 March; and then the 7th-level Northern Premier League was suspended three days later, on 16 March.
-The National League (5th & 6th Levels) was last of the top 7 league-levels to suspend their seasons – on the 20th of March.

-On the 9th of April, the FA announced that the 2019-20 seasons would all be cancelled (‘expunged’) for non-League Steps 3-7 (ie, league levels 7 through 11). {See this: Coronavirus: All football below National League to end (} That meant all of the seasons had now been declared null and void for all leagues in the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th & 11th levels. No titles to be awarded, no promotions or relegations to be handed out: all of the 2019-20 seasons for Steps 3 through 7 (levels 7 through 11) would be stricken from the books. Perhaps the clubs that were dealt the cruelest blow by this were 7th-level/Northern Premier side South Shields [who are located just south of Newcastle], and 10th-level/Combined Counties Football League D-1 side Jersey Bulls [of the Channel Islands]. South Shields were 12 points clear on top of the Northern Premier League, with 9 games remaining, when the league was suspended {table including attendances, here}. Jersey Bulls had already clinched promotion to the 9th tier: they had won all 27 matches and were 20 points clear {table including attendances, here}. South Shields averaged 1,669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 432 per game. Jersey Bulls averaged 669 per game, in a league where the median average attendance was 42 per game. Neither will win promotion.

-On 22 April 2020, National League clubs (5th division and 6th level) voted to end the season, with promotion and relegation still ‘under careful consideration’.

-On 13 May, EFL League Championship clubs (2nd division) voted to continue with the season, with plans for players to return to training on 25 May, and the league to restart on 20 June (following, roughly, the same re-start schedule as the Premier League). Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).

-On 15 May 2020, EFL League Two (4th division) voted to end the season, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. The play-offs would be played as normal (behind closed doors). Thus, Swindon Town are champions and will be promoted to the 3rd division, along with 2nd-place-finisher Crewe Alexandra, and 3rd-place finisher Plymouth Argyle. (Note: the weighted PPG switched the top two teams in the table, not that it really mattered too much, as both Swindon and Crewe won automatic promotion anyway.)

-On 28 May 2020, the Premier League announced it was set to Restart on 17 May, with a full slate set for the weekend of 20-21 June {see two paragraphs below}.

-That left just one division undecided…League One (3rd division). That decision did not come until Tuesday 9 June. That was when English Football League clubs met, with the intention of approving the league’s new mechanism for ending a campaign early in the event of the COVID-19 pandemic ruling out the possibility of a normal conclusion. The biggest problem with a 3rd-division-restart was that many third-tier clubs are on shaky financial footing right now, and playing out the rest of the season without ticket revenue could ruin many League One clubs.

-9 June…EFL League One voted, by an ‘overwhelming majority’, to end the season, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. The play-offs will be played as normal (behind closed doors). Thus, Coventry City are champions and will be promoted to the 2nd division, along with 2nd-place-finisher Rotherham United. The biggest change using PPG was that Wycombe Wanderers moved from 8th place to 3rd place, because they hand a game, or games, in hand, compared to the four teams above them {see this, from}. Relegated from the 3rd division are: Tranmere Rovers, Southend United, Bolton Wanderers.

-17 June…National League clubs [24 in 5th level/44 in 6th level] voted to determine the season on a points-per-game basis. That meant Barrow AFC would be 5th division champions, and will return to the Football League after 48 seasons in non-League football. In the 6th tier, NL-North side King’s Lynn won promotion to the 5th division, by supplanting York City as 1st place finisher (via a better PPG). And NL-South side Wealdstone won promotion to the 5th division as well. Play-offs set to begin on 18 July, and to end no later than 30 July. Relegation in the 5th division still TDB, depending on what EFL L2 does (just one team is expected to be relegated out of the 4th division – currently that would be Stevenage, but Macclesfield Town might be penalized further, and thus be relegated instead). {See this, from…Barrow promoted back to English Football League after National League vote.}

Premier League: Project Restart.
Completion of the season to is begin on Wednesday 17 June, with 2 matches that were not played from previous rounds, then a full slate to be played on the weekend of 20-21 June. (The two Wednesday 17 June fixtures are Man City v Arsenal and Aston Villa v Sheffield Utd.) {See this from} The plan is to complete all 92 remaining fixtures by Sunday 26 June, with the FA Cup final to be played on Saturday 1 August. (UEFA has set a deadline of 2 August, for all leagues in Europe to finish). At some points in the restart, some teams will have to play as many as 3 games in a week {see this from}. All games are to be played behind closed doors. The games are to be played at the home-clubs’ venues, with the exception of several ties…‘Concerns over the possibility of fans gathering outside grounds have led the police to request the following games take place at neutral venues: Manchester City v Liverpool, Manchester City v Newcastle, Manchester United v Sheffield United, Newcastle v Liverpool and Everton v Liverpool. The police have also asked that this list includes any match that may see Liverpool win the title.’ {-Excerpt from What, when, where? Questions answered on Premier League’s return, by Paul MacInnes at on 29 May 2020).}

The games will be played every day starting with Saturday 20 June. Match times: Friday 8pm; Saturday 12.30pm, 3pm, 5.30pm, 8pm; Sunday 12pm, 2pm, 4.30pm, 5pm; Monday 8pm; Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 6pm, 8pm.

-4 June 2020: Premier League clubs agree to five substitutions and nine players on bench (by Guardian Sport and PA Media at

The map shows all clubs which were drawing above 1,000-per game, before play was suspended in mid-March 2020. Most leagues had completed between 70% and 80% of the season when play was suspended (I break down the percentages, league by league, below). In the Premier League, most teams had played 29 games (four teams had played 28 games) {2019-20 Premier League table}.

Below is a suspended-season summary of each league, in Levels 1 through 7. (Includes percentage of season competed, and league positions at mid-March season suspension with respect to titles, automatic promotions and relegation). (Note: The list below is repeated on the map, at the top-centre, just to the right of the main map, in a sidebar). (Also, TBD means To Be Determined.)

(1st Level) Premier League 2019-20: Season to Restart on Wednesday 17 June.
(20 teams / 38-game season; winner is English title-winner / 1st through 4th places qualify for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage.)
Most teams had played 29 games (four had played 28) {73% or 76% completed}.
Liverpool lead by 25 points (two wins short of clinching the title).
Currently in the qualification-zone for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage: Liverpool, Manchester City, Leicester, Chelsea.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Bournemouth, Aston Villa, Norwich.

(2nd Level) EFL Championship 2019-20: Season to Restart on Saturday 20 June. Then Play-offs to be played as usual (albeit behind closed doors).
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
All teams had played 37 games {80% completed}.
Currently in the Automatic Promotion places: Leeds in 1st place, 7 pts. clear of 3rd; West Brom in 2nd place, 6 pts. clear of 3rd.
Currently in the Relegation Zone: Charlton, Luton Town, Barnsley.

(3rd Level) EFL League One 2019-20: Season has ended: On 15 May, clubs voted to end season with immediate effect, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted teams, and Relegated teams, listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors).
(23 teams / 44-game season; 1st & 2nd place are Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *3rd through 6th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 34 and 36 games {77% to 81% completed}.
Automatically Promoted teams (2): Coventry City, Rotherham.
Relegated teams (3): Tranmere, Southend, Bolton.

(4th Level) EFL League Two 2019-20: Season has ended: On 15 May, clubs voted to end season with immediate effect, with the final table being determined on a points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted teams listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation TBD.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st & 2nd & 3rd place are Promoted*; bottom 2 are Relegated. *5th through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 36 and 37 games {78% to 80% completed}.
Automatically Promoted teams (3): Swindon Town, Crewe Alexandra, Plymouth Argyle.
Relegation Zone: Macclesfield, Stevenage.

(non-League/5th Level) National League 2019-20: Season has been terminated. Then on 17 June, the clubs voted to decide final standings on an unweighted points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted team listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation TBD: but Chorley will definitely be relegated; the other relegations depend on what EFL L2 will do.
(24 teams / 46-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 4 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place in the Play-offs.)
Teams had played between 35 and 39 games {76% to 85% completed}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): Barrow.
Relegation Zone: Ebbsfleet, Maidenhead, AFC Fylde, Chorley.

(non-League/6th Level) National Leagues North & South 2019-20: Season has been terminated. Then on 17 June, the clubs voted to decide final standings on an unweighted points-per-game basis. Automatically Promoted team listed below. Play-offs to be played as usual (but behind closed doors). Relegation: no teams will be relegated (because 7th-level leagues were declared null and void).
(Two separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 7th places play for 1 promotion-place (in each league) in the Play-offs.
Teams had played between 31 and 35 games {74% to 83% completed}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): NL-N: King’s Lynn (who were in 2nd place, but had better Points Per Game than York City) {table, here}.
Automatically Promoted team (1): NL-S: Wealdstone.
Relegation Zone: NL-N: Kettering Town, Blyth Spartans, Bradford (Park Avenue).
Relegation Zone: NL-S: Tonbridge Angels, Braintree Town, Hungerford Town.

(non-League/7th Level) Northern / Southern Central / Southern South / Isthmian Leagues 2019-20: Season has been cancelled (Expunged) [All four Level 7 leagues' 2019-20 seasons were declared null and void.].
(Four separate 22 team leagues / 42-game season; 1st place is Promoted*; bottom 3 are Relegated. *2nd through 5th places play in expanded inter-league format for 2 promotion-places total (between the 4 leagues) in the Play-offs.
All four Level 7 leagues’ seasons were cancelled (expunged).
(Teams had played between 26 and 35 games {62% to 83% completed}.
Automatic Promotion places: Northern: South Shields (1st) were 12 pts. clear. Southern Central: Peterborough Sports led on goal-diff, but Tamworth had 2 games-in-hand. Southern South: Truro City (1st) were 1 pt. clear w/ 2 games-in-hand. Isthmian: Worthing (1st) was 7 pts. clear. But no 7th-tier clubs will be promoted.
Relegation Zone: Northern: Matlock Town, Atherton Collieries, Stafford Rangers. Southern Central: St. Ives Town, Alvechurch, Redditch Utd. Southern South: Walton Casuals, Beaconsfield, Dorchester. Isthmian: Wingate & Finchley, Merstham, Brighlingsea. These clubs in the relegation zones got a big break, as no 7th-tier clubs will be relegated.

Aspects of the map page
The map shows all clubs in the English football system which drew above 1,000 per game in 2019-20. (Data from approximately 70-to-80% of home domestic league matches [all the matches played up to the suspension of play in mid-March 2020].) Again, these attendance figures are final, because all remaining regular-season matches will be played behind closed doors.

(Note: in bold-17-to-36-point-type, on the map, are listed the 9 largest cities within England {all English cities with more than .6 million inhabitants, from: List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (}…Greater London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Nottingham, Sheffield, Bristol. Also, in 12-to-15-point-type, on the map, are listed the 83 Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. Also, in 14-point-all-cap-bold-type, are listed prominent British regional names such as: the East Midlands, the West Midlands, East Anglia, the West Country, and the Lake District; as well as North Wales and South Wales.)

Also, there is an inset-map for all the clubs from Greater London-plus-the-immediate surrounding area [Greater London (18 Clubs from Greater London + 3 from surrounding areas of the Home Counties).]

The expanded list on the right side of the map shows 7 things…
A) Attendance Rank.
B) 2019-20 Divisional status (League-Level; and league position when the seasons were suspended).
C) Home domestic league Average Attendance from 2019-20.
D) Seasons that the Club has played in the 1st division (there have been 121 seasons of English 1st division seasons [counting 2019-20]).
E) English titles won (with last title noted).
F) FA Cup titles won (with last Cup-win noted).
G) League Cup titles won (with last cup-win noted).

At the foot of the map-page are shown the crests of the top-50-drawing English-and-Welsh clubs, arranged L-R with their crests sized, to reflect their drawing-power. (The top 50 drawing clubs in the English league system in 2019-20 ended up being all the clubs which drew above 10.0 K per game.)

There were 9 clubs which drew above 40 thousand per game…
(In the previous season [2018-19], there were 8 clubs which drew above 40 K. The reason why there were 9 clubs drawing above 40 K in 2019-20 was that Aston Villa, who had just won promotion back to the Premier League, saw their attendance shoot up 5.6 K-per-game.)
(List below shows the 9 clubs that drew above 40-K-per-game in 2019-20 (with Numerical Change from 2018-19.)
-Manchester United, averaging 73.3 K per game (down -1.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Arsenal, 60.2 K (up +0.3 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-West Ham United, 59.8 K (up +1.5 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Tottenham Hotspur, 59.3 K (up +5.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Manchester City 54.2 K (up +0.08 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Liverpool, 53.1 K (up +0.16 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Newcastle United, 48.2 K (down -2.8 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Aston Villa, 41.6 K (up +5.6 K-per-game from 2018-19).

-Chelsea, 40.5 K (up +0.1 K-per-game from 2018-19).

And, in 2019-20, there were 32 clubs in the English league system which drew above 20.0 K per game. The clubs drawing above 20-K-per-game included the 9 highest-drawing clubs listed above, plus the 21 clubs listed below. Breakdown by division: 19 Premier League clubs (all except Bournemouth); 10 Championship clubs; 1 League One club (Sunderland).
-Everton (1), 39.1 K.
-Leeds United AFC (2), 35.3 K.
-Leicester City (1), 32.0 K.
-Wolverhampton Wanderers (1), 31.3 K.
-Sheffield United (1), 30.8 K.
-Brighton & Hove Albion (1), 30.3 K.
-Sunderland AFC (3), 30.1 K.
-Southampton (1), 29.6 K.
-Nottingham Forest (2), 27.7 K.
-Norwich City (1), 27.0 K.
-Derby County (2), 26.7 K.
-Crystal Palace (1), 25.0 K.
-West Bromwich Albion (2), 24.0 K.
-Sheffield Wednesday (2), 23.7 K.
-Stoke City (2), 22.8 K.
-Cardiff City (2), 22.8 K.
-Bristol City (2), 21.8 K.
-Huddersfield Town AFC (2), 21,7 K.
-Watford (1), 20.8 K.
-Birmingham City (2), 20.4 K.
-Burnley (1), 20.2 K.

There are 3 clubs on the map, who were not drawing above 1-K-per-game before 2019-20. {Here is my map from last season, 2018-19 English football clubs map/133 clubs}.
Those 3 clubs are:
∙King’s Lynn Town (of Norfolk), who drew 1.4 K, in the 6th-tier National League North. King’s Lynn Town are currently in 2nd place, 2 pts. behind York City, but King’s Lynn would be in 1st place, and in the automatic-promotion-place, using PPG {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on King’s Lynn Town}.
∙Spennymoor Town (of Durham), who drew 1.1 K, also in the 6th-tier National League North. Spennymoor Town are in their 3rd season ever of 6th-tier football. Spennymoor is located, by road, 26 miles (41 km) south of Newcastle. Five years ago, Spennymoor Town were drawing 542 per game, in the 7th-tier Northern Premier D1-North. After winning promotion to the 6th tier for 2017-18, Spennymoor drew in the 800s-per-game, finishing in 8th in 2017-18, then in 4th place last season. Currently they sit 6th, in the play-off places – but would be outside the play-off paces if PPG were to be used {table, here}.
∙Wealdstone (of north-west Greater London, situated in the former county of Middlesex). Wealdstone drew 1.0 K in the 6th-tier National League South. Wealdstone were a founding member of the Alliance Premier League (present-day 5th division/the National League), in 1979-80. Wealdstone have led the 2019-20 National League South since September (they currently lead Havant & Waterlooville by 2 pts.) {table, here}. {Here is my post on the National Leagues North & South 2019-20 from September 2019, which features a short illustrated article on Wealdstone}.

The list goes to 1,000 per game (134 clubs), but I also included, on the list – and on the map – all clubs which drew in the 900s…of which there were only 3 clubs: Bomsgrove Sporting (7), Ebbsfleet United (5), Gateshead (6-N). So that made it 137 teams on the map. Here are all the clubs which just missed out being on the map: that is, all the clubs which drew in the 800s…5 clubs: Worthing (7), Chelmsford City (6-S), Slough Town (6-S), Blyth Spartans (6-N), Guernsey (8).

Here is the breakdown, by division (aka level), of…
All the clubs in the English football pyramid which drew over 1 K per game in 2018-19 (134 clubs).
1 – Premier League: all 20 clubs.

2 – EFL Championship: all 24 clubs.

3 – EFL League One: all 23 clubs.

4 – EFL League Two: all 24 clubs.

5 – [non-League] National League: 22 of the 24 clubs…The exceptions being Ebbsfleet United (who drew 979 per game), and Boreham Wood (who drew a club record 724 per game).

6 – [non-League] The 6th tier is comprised of 2 regional leagues: National League North & National League South. 18 of the 44 clubs in the 6th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (11 in NL-North, 7 in NL-South).
-York City (6-N), drawing 2,705 per game.
-Dulwich Hamlet (6-S), 2,183.
-Hereford (6-N), 2,049.
-Chester (6-N), 2,019.
-Maidstone United (6-S), 1,776.
-Darlington (6-N), 1,471.
-King’s Lynn Town (6-N), 1,417.
-Havant & Waterlooville (6-S), 1,390.
-Kidderminster Harriers (6-N), 1,364.
-Boston United (6-N), 1,304.
-Dartford (6-S), 1,182.
-Spennymoor Town (6-N), 1,182.
-AFC Telford United (6-N), 1,148.
-Altrincham (6-N), 1,139.
-Weymouth (6-S), 1,077.
-Bath City (6-S), 1,064.
-Wealdstone (6-S), 1,031.
-Southport (6-N), 1,006.

7 – [non-League] The 7th tier is comprised of 4 regional leagues: Northern Premier/Southern Central/Southern South/Isthmian Leagues. 3 of the 88 clubs in the 7th tier drew above 1.0 K per game (all 3 from the Northern Premier League).
The three 7th-level clubs which drew above 1 K per game were:
-South Shields (7-Northern Premier), 1,669.
-FC United of Manchester (7-Northern Premier), 1,668.
-Scarborough Athletic (7-Northern Premier), 1,001.

Final breakdown of the 134 clubs drawing over 1,00 per game in 2019-20: all 20 Premier League clubs; all 71 Football League clubs; 43 non-League clubs / 130 English clubs and 4 Welsh clubs.
Sources for map…
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of English Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Counties, by Nilfanion, at File:English metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties 2010.svg (
-Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
-List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom (
-Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England (
-Local government in Wales/Principal areas of Wales (
Attendance figures… (2019-20 Average attendances from the 1st division through 4th division.) (2019-20 Average attendances of all non-League clubs on the map, ie from 5th division, 6th division, and 7th division.)
-League tables from
-Information on COVID-19 Pandemic on English football from several sources including theguardian/football,, 2019-20 Premier League (

May 27, 2020

Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map including COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball; with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list./+ Illustration for 2019 Korean Series: Doosan Bears sweep Kiwoom Heroes to win their 3rd KBO title in 5 years.

Filed under: Baseball,Korea: baseball — admin @ 7:26 am

Baseball in South Korea: KBO League – 2020 Location-map with 10 team-profile boxes, 2019 attendances and KBO titles list

By Bill Turianski on 27 May 2020;

-KBO teams…KBO League/ Teams (
-KBO official site/schedule, scores, standings; About KBO, etc. (in English, with Korean option)…
-KBO 리그의 공식 사이트
-The Korea Herald/baseball ([sports]/[baseball]).

-No MLB? Korean baseball is in full swing—here’s what you need to know, from KBO cheerleaders to bat-flipping (by Tom Huddlseston at on May 25 2020).

KBO League map-page…
The map-page includes a COVID-19 Timeline for Korean Baseball. The text for the timeline is repeated two paragraphs below. The map-page features a location-map of the 10 KBO League teams, including an inset-map of Greater Seoul aka Seoul Capital Area (there are 5 KBO League teams in Seoul Capital Area, including 3 teams in Seoul city-proper (aka Seoul Special City). For each team, there is a Circular-cap-logo that is sized to reflect 2019 average attendance…the larger the circular-cap-logo, the higher the team’s attendance. 2016 Korea Post stamps are shown for each team. These stamps each feature the team’s mascot. Some of the stamps have been updated to show recently-changed new cap logos and color-changes (LG Twins, Lotte Giants, Kia Tigers, Kiwoom Heroes). There are also 3 charts: One chart shows the 9 largest cities in South Korea (all cities with more than one million in their Metropolitan Areas). Another chart shows 2019 attendance for the 10 KBO League teams. Attendance, overall was down for the second-straight season in the KBO League, and last year league-wide attendance fell an alarming 9.8% {see the section on 2019 KBO attendance, which is about halfway further down this post}. The third chart show the full Titles list for the KBO League (the KBO League’s first season was in 1982).

Finally, there is a section at the far right-hand side of the map-page which has Team Profile Boxes for the 10 KBO League teams. In the profile boxes there are shown or listed several things…Cap-logo. Primary logo. Season team was established. Venue-location(s) & City-location(s). [Note: 3 KBO League teams have a secondary venue, in a neighboring city, where they play a few home games each season (Lotte Giants, Samsung Lions, Hanwha Eagles). Those secondary locations are also shown on the map.] Team Owner with owner’s business, and company logo. Titles won by team, with last title listed, along with the number of times the team has finished as Runners-up. Primary mascot’s logo.

South Korea: 2020 KBO League: COVID-19 Timeline in Korean Baseball

December 2019: 2020 KBO League season schedule was released: 28th of March was scheduled for opening day.

10 March 2020: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) cancelled all exhibition games, and delayed the start of the 2020 KBO League season indefinitely.

19 April 2020: New COVID-19 cases, per day, in all of South Korea, dropped to single-digits.

21 April 2020: Preseason games begin for restart.

5 May 2020: 2020 KBO League begins. Full 144-game season is scheduled, but in a more compressed time-frame, meaning more doubleheaders, less off-days, and no All-Star break. The season is projected to end on the 2nd of November. Post-season to end no later than 25 November.

The stadiums will be empty except for players, staff, umpires and some media. Masks and latex gloves must be worn by base coaches and umpires on the field; teams’ training staff must wear masks in the dugouts. Players wear masks in the dugout, but not on the field. There can be small cheerleading squads. Spitting is not allowed.

Will there be fans in the stadiums? Yonhap news agency reported that the KBO has plans to gradually open the stadiums, depending on the progress of the pandemic.

Here are articles which helped me put together the timeline…
-2020 KBO League season (
-S. Korean baseball season pushed further back to late April (by Yonhap news agency at on 24 March 2020).
-Inside look at Korean baseball restart that offers hope for MLB (by Joel Sherman at[MLB] on 20 April 2020).
-S. Korean baseball regular season to begin May 5 (by Yonhap news agency at on 21 April 2020).
The link below is recommended…
-The Korean Baseball Organization is back from the coronavirus shutdown… (by Ryan Divish at on 8 May 2020).

Demographics of South Korea
The population of South Korea is around 51.7 million {source: 2019 estimate, here at South Korea en.wikipedia page}. This puts South Korea as the 27th-most-populous nation on Earth. South Korea is very small, though: it is the 109th-largest country (at 100,210 km-sq or 66,690 mi-sq). That makes South Korea slightly smaller than Iceland, and slightly larger than Hungary. The largest city in South Korea (by far) is, of course, Seoul…which is absolutely gigantic, and has a metro-area population that is fifth-largest on the planet. Seoul has a special-city population of around 10.1 million, and metro-area population of around 25.5 million ! Only Tokyo, Japan (at ~37.2 million), Shanghai, Jakarta, and Delhi have larger metro-area populations than does Seoul. {Source.} Basically, half of the population of South Korea resides in Seoul’s metropolitan area. South Korea has about the 29th-highest adjusted-GDP in the world [International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates] {see this, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita).

KBO League est. 1982; 10 teams. Season: 144 games/5-team playoffs w/reg-season-winner getting bye to the 5-game Korean Series
Pro major-league baseball in South Korea began in 1982, with the institution of the KBO League as a 6-team league. A minor league was established eight years later in 1990 – the KBO Futures League. In 1986, the KBO League expanded to include a seventh team.

In the first decade of its existence, the KBO League as a whole was only drawing in the 5 to 7 K range. By 1991, the KBO League had 8 teams. In 1995, cumulative attendance for the season finally topped 10 K per game, boosted by the exciting 1995 KBO season which saw three teams, the OB Bears, the LG Twins, and the Lotte Giants, go neck-to-neck for the pennant (the title in ’95 was won by the OB, now Doosan, Bears).

However, this league attendance figure wasn’t surpassed for 14 years. After 1995, the KBO began to see dwindling fan interest that lasted for about a decade. What first helped reverse the gradual slide in attendances from 1996 to 2004 was the good showing that the South Korean national baseball team had in the first World Baseball Classic, in 2005, when they finished in third. Another boost to the game there came three years later, when South Korea narrowly lost to Japan in extra innings in the second World Baseball Classic, and then six months later, the South Korean baseball team won the gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

These results convinced many South Korean sports fans that KBO baseball was a product worth supporting. In 2008, league-wide attendance shot up 2.3 K per game to 10.4 K; the next year [2009] it was 11.1 K, and the KBO League began drawning above 11 K (up to 2018). The health of Korean pro baseball was seen in the fact that there was recent expansion. The KBO League finally got to 10 teams, first with the creation of a 9th team (the NC Dinos) in 2013, and a 10th team (the KT Wiz) in 2015.

But after reaching peak attendance in 2017, the KBO League has seen two straight years of attendance decline, including a 9.8% drop in overall attendance in 2019. The KBO League had peak attendance in 2017 at 8.40 million tickets sold, which was 11,668 per game {2017 KBO League attendance}. 2018 saw a 4% decline in attendance, at 8.07 million ticket sold and an average of 11,214 per game {2018 KBO League attendance}. Then 2019 saw a more drastic decline in attendance, at just 7.28 million tickets sold and an average of 10,119 per game {2019 KBO League attendance}.

The explanation for the alarming drop in attendance in 2019 at KBO League games is twofold...
1) A number of the bigger teams had bad seasons in 2019. Like the Lotte Giants, who finished dead last, and dropped over 3,000-per-game in attendance. Also in that category were the Kia Tigers and the Hanwha Eagles, both of whom had below-.440 -percentage seasons in 2019, and both of whom saw a drop-off of around 2,400-per-game in attendance. But then there was of situation of the SK Wyverns, who had a very good season for the second straight year (finishing in 2nd place in both 2018 and 2019), but who nevertheless saw a drop-off of around 750 per game (to a still-respectable 13.6 per game). Why?…see below.
2) The KBO League changed the specifications of their official baseballs to 1 mm wider and 1 gram heavier. And that has appeared to lower offensive numbers in 2019. In other words, the KBO messed with their baseball, and it backfired. {See this tweet from February 2019, by a writer at who is also an employee of the Lotte Giants: ‘The KBO is implementing new baseball. It is 1 mm bigger and 1 g heavier, hoping that it could help neutralize the high-offense environment that the league is known for. According to a simulation ran by the SK Wyverns, the ball resulted in 20% less home runs than the previous one’, tweet from[Sung Min kim].} {Also see this article, The KBO Appears to Be De-Juicing its Baseballs (by Sun Min Kim at on 23 April 2019).} The theory is that the drop in offense (particularly the drop in Home Runs) drove fans away in 2019. {See this, Pitching regains foothold as home runs, attendance drop in S. Korean baseball (by Yoo Jee-Ho at on 2 October 2019).}

Only one team had a substantial increase in attendance in 2019 in the KBO League, and that was the relatively new team the NC Dinos (est. 2013). The NC Dinos went from last-place in 2018, to a wild-card berth in 2019, winning 25 more games in the process, and seeing a 3,700-per-game increase in their crowds, to a more respectable 9.8-K-per-game attendance. That is still below the general league average (in a good season), but NC Dinos’ attendance figures were certainly better than the other new team, the KT Wiz (est. 2015), whose average attendance has dropped 2.1-K-per-game in two years.

As of the 27th of May 2020 (19 or 20 games played), the NC Dinos currently lead the 2020 KBO League, by 3 games over the LG Twins and 4 games over the reigning champions the Doosan Bears. {KBO League standings.}

    Doosan Bears, 2019 Korean Series champions (the Bears’ 3rd title in 5 years)
    두산 베어스, 2019 한국 시리즈 챔피언 (5 년 만에 베어스 3 위)

Photo and Image credits above – Blank map of Seoul, by Mikey641 & OpenStreetMap contributors at File:Seoul South Korea location map.svg ( Overhead view of crowd and field at Jamsil Baseball Stadium right before start of the 2019 Korean Series, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at Oh Jae-il makes leaping catch, screenshot of image from video uploaded by Video Mug at Oh Jae-il hits walk-off single in 9th to win Game 1 for Doosan Bears, screenshot of video uploaded by Arirang News at Park Kun-woo is congratulated by teammates after his walk-off single in the bottom of the 9th in Game 2, photo by Yonhap via Game 3 standots: Park Kun-wa and Seth Frankel, photo by Yonhap via Doosan Bears players rush the field to celebrate their title, screenshot from video uploaded by BearSpotv베어스포티비 at

Josh Lindblom, photo by News1 via Jose Miguel Fernandez, photo by OSEN via Oh Jae-il, photo by Yonhap via
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Globe-map of South Korea, by Ksiom at File:South Korea (orthographic projection).svg (
-Blank map of South Korea, by NordNordWest at :FileSouth Korea location map.svg (
-Attendance… (
-Lotte Giants’ official shop,[new 2018 cap], thanks for photo of the brand-new Lotte Giants’ deep-navy-blue-and-wine-red ball cap logo.
-KBO teams’ K-stamps (2016) [KBO-team-cap-with-mascot], by Shin Jaeyong/Korea Post

May 11, 2020

Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 timeline in German football & Bundesliga table before the restart; plus a chart with: final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs.

Filed under: Germany — admin @ 8:06 am

Germany May 2020 Bundesliga restart: Location-map, with COVID-19 Timeline in German football, league table before the restart, final attendance figures, titles, and seasons-in-1st-division for the 18 clubs

By Bill Turianski on 11 May 2020;

-2019–20 Bundesliga (
-World site…
-Official site of Bundesliga (English)…
-Deutsche Welle [in English]…DW/en/sports.
-Summary – 2019-20 Bundesliga: fixtures, tables, results, stats, etc…

-Here is a map I posted in August 2019: it shows German clubs by Membership-Size (56 clubs)…Germany: 2019-20 map showing Club Membership sizes (top 3 levels: Bundesliga, 2-Bundesliga, 3-Liga/56 teams) (figures from January 2019).

-Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (by Matt Pearson at on 8 May 2020).

-Coronavirus: Dynamo Dresden cases leave Bundesliga restart in the balance (by Matt Ford at on 10 May 2020).

2019-20 Bundesliga: COVID-19 Pandemic Timeline in German football
8 March 2020: German health minister recommends cancelling events with more than 1,000 people.

9 March: DFL announced that the Bundesliga season would be completed to ensure planning for the following season, and that any postponements would be to matchdays ‘en bloc’.

11 March: Catch-up match between Borussia Mönchengladbach and FC Köln was played behind closed doors (first time in league history).

13 March: All Matchday 26 games were suspended (Round 26, 13-16 March).

16 March: DFL suspended the leagues until at least 2 April.

6 May: German chancellor Angela Merkel and the leaders of the 16 Federal States of Germany approved resumption of the leagues.

7 May: DFL announces Bundesliga will resume on 16 May, with Matchday 26. All matches to be played behind closed doors, with no more than 332 people in support of the match there at the stadium (figure includes players, coaches
and referees, journalists, doping control officers, stewards, emergency services, groundskeepers and ball boys and ball girls.

(Germany’s ban on large-scale social events remains until the end of August.)

The final Matchday (Round 34) will take place on 27 June.
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Blank map of Germany, by NordNordWest at File:Germany location map.svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Globe-map of Germany, by Rob984 File:EU-Germany_(orthographic_projection).svg (Wikimedia Commons).
-Map with Federal States of Germany from States of Germany (
-Attendance figures and Stadium Capacities from World site…
-14 largest German cities from List of cities in Germany by population (
-Closed door match info from -Bundesliga restart after the coronavirus halt: The 10 big questions answered (
-COVID-19 timeline and Stadium capacities from 2019–20 Bundesliga (

April 27, 2020

1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees.

Filed under: Baseball,Baseball-1928 MLB season,Retro maps — admin @ 11:15 am
1928 Major League Baseball: map with crests & uniforms, final standings and stats leaders; champions: New York Yankees

By Bill Turianski on 27 April 2020;
Sources:, 1928 AL season; 1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Attendances. Source:
-Most logos. Source:,[MLB logos].

Aspects of the map-and-chart:
A). 1928 location-map of the 16 MLB teams. Home cities listed, then franchises listed in smaller text below the home-city name. Each team (franchise) has at least one logo from that year (in this case, 1928); the logos are sized to reflect average attendance from that season: the higher-drawing teams have larger logos-and-or-multiple-logos. In this case, that applies to the top-drawing teams in the NL in 1928 (the Chicago Cubs and the NY Giants, as well as the Brooklyn Robins [aka Dodgers], and the St. Louis Cardinals), and it applies to the top-drawing teams in the AL in 1928 (the New York Yankees, as well as the Philadelphia Athletics). Similarly, the lower-drawing teams in MLB that season have much smaller logos on the map (in this case, such as the Boston Braves and the Philadelphia Phillies).

In my first MLB retro map, I took a look at attendance figures – by team – in this era…{here, 1925 MLB retro map [Pirates win WS].}

B). Population of US cities (1920 figures). A small chart showing the 25-then-largest cities of the USA in 1920 is shown at the upper-left-hand side of the map. MLB representation-by-city is noted there. In my 1926 and 1927 retro MLB maps, I took a look at Populations of US Cities (1920 figures), with a small expanded chart of the one on the map…{1926 MLB retro map [Cardinals win WS].} {1927 MLB retro map [Yankees win WS].}

C). Attendance {data from}. 1928 MLB team average attendances are shown at the upper-right of the map. Two paragraphs above is a link to an article I wrote about MLB attendance team-by-team, circa the 1920s.

D). World Series champions (for 1928, the New York Yankees). World Series champions are represented by a prominent section at the top of the map. A photo of the manager of the WS winner is shown (Miller Huggins), along with 7 photos of the top players on the WS-winning Yankees of 1928 (Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Herb Pennock, Waite Hoyt, Tony Lazzeri, George Pigras, Earle Combes). The players shown were determined by WAR [Wins After Replacement]. Players who have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame [HoF] are noted, by a bronze-colored square with year of HoF election listed.

E). Top players in MLB for 1928 are shown at the foot of the map. Photos of stats leaders in several categories are shown…for Pitchers: ERA, Wins, and WAR (Pitchers); for Position-Players: Batting Average (BAvg), HR, RBI, OPS, and WAR. Again, HoF players are noted.

1928 MLB stats leaders…
ERA, Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). Wins: [joint-best] Larry Benton (NY baseball Giants) / Burleigh Grimes (Pittsburgh). WAR (for pitchers), Dazzy Vance (Brooklyn). BAvg, Rogers Hornsby (Boston [NL]). HR, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). RBI, Lou Gehrig (NY [AL]). OPS, Babe Ruth (NY [AL]). WAR (for position players), Babe Ruth (NY [AL]).

F). MLB team sections: flanking sections, in alphabetized chart-form, show the 8 NL franchises (of 1928) on the far-left of the map, and the 8 AL franchises (of 1928) on the far-right of the map. The sections include several things…In each franchise’s rectangular box is shown their uniforms from that season, and at least one of their primary logos from that season, along with a narrow bar that is in the team’s colors that season. A photo of the present-day-franchise’s home ball cap is shown [2020 ball caps]. And franchise info is shown for each team, including: years of existence [seasons in NL or AL], location(s), league-titles [Pennants] and MLB titles [WS titles], plus any franchise movements. Standard abbreviations for each team are used. As far as former teams go, to avoid any confusion, I used’s abbreviations. {Here:[team_IDs](MLB team abbreviations).}

    1928: New York Yankees win their second straight World Series title, with another Series-shutout…

In 1928, the American League’s New York Yankees won their second consecutive (and then-3rd overall) World Series title. Coming off the heels of the legendary 1927 Yankees (when they swept the Pittsburgh Pirates in 4 games), the 1928 Yankees repeated, by sweeping the National League’s St. Louis Cardinals. The Yankees beat out the Philadelphia Athletics by 2.5 games for the 1928 AL pennant; the Cardinals beat out the Cubs (by 2 games) and the Giants (by 4 games), for the NL pennant.

The Yankees used only 3 pitchers in the 1928 World Series: Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, and George Pipgras {see photo below}. Between them, they pitched 4 Complete Games. In the 1st game, RHP Waite Hoyt held the Cardinals to just 3 hits. Hoyt went the distance, and the Yankees won 4-1, with Bob Meusal hitting a HR. In the 2nd game, RHP George Pipgras also went the full 9 innings, as the Yanks won 9-4. Lou Gehrig hit a 3-run HR in the 1st inning. Pipgras gave up just 4 hits.

Two days later (Oct. 7 1928) in St. Louis, Missouri, the Yankees won their 3rd straight complete-game-win. This time, the pitcher was journeyman LHP Tom Zachary. (Zachary was picked up off waivers from Washington in August, replacing the injured Herb Pennock.) The Yanks won 7-3, on the strength of Lou Gehrig’s 2 HRs. In the 4th and final game, Waite Hoyt again threw a complete game. The Yankees hit 4 HRs…3 HRs by Babe Ruth, and one HR by Lou Gehrig (his 4th of the Series). The final score, again, was 7-3. The Yankees had swept, and they had avenged their 1926 Fall Classic loss to the Cardinals.

1927 / ’28 was the first time a team had ever swept back-to-back World Series contests. No other ball club in Major League Baseball has accomplished the feat of back-to-back World Series sweeps…but the New York Yankees have gone on to do it two more times…in 1938 / ’39, and then in 1998 / ’99.

Below: 1928 New York Yankees: the first team to ever sweep back-to-back World Series titles…
Photo and Image credits above -
Photo from right-field bleachers at Yankee Stadium [opening game of 1928 World Series], from a screenshot from a video uploaded by New York Yankees at Waite Hoyt, Tom Zachary, George Pipgras [photo taken before game 1 of the 1928 WS]: photo from Gehrig and Ruth [circa 1928], photo from Wikimedia Commons via


Photo and Image credits on the map page…
1928 World Series champions New York Yankees…
Babe Ruth [colorized photo from 1928], photo unattributed at[@baseballincolor]. Lou Gehrig [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via Herb Pennock [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Waite Hoyt [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Tony Lazzeri [photo from 1929], photo unattributed at George Pipgras [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Earle Combs [photo circa 1927], unattributed at Miller Huggins [colorized photo circa 1929], photo unattributed and colorized by Don Stokes at “Murderers Row”, featuring Gehrig, Ruth, Combes, Lazzeri [colorized photo from 1929], photo unattributed at[Willie Brown]. Photo of 1928 World Series Game 1 ticket, from

1928 MLB stats leaders…
Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1928], photo unattributed at Larry Doyle (NYG) [photo circa 1928], trading card from Burleigh Grimes (PIT) [photo circa 1929], photo unattributed at Dazzy Vance (BRO) [photo circa 1924], photo unattributed at Rogers Hornsby (BSN) [photo from 1928], photo from the cover of Time Magazine via File:Rogers Hornsby 1928.jpg ( Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], unattributed at Lou Gehrig (NYY) [photo circa 1928], unattributed at Babe Ruth (NYY) [photo circa 1927], from Bettman-Corbis/Getty Images via

Thanks to all at the following links…
-University of Texas at Austin online archive (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection),, 1928 AL season1928 NL season.
-Baseball Hall of Fame’s Dressed to the Nines (uniforms illustrated by Marc Okkonen),
-US cities’ populations (1920 figures),
-Attendances. Source:
Most logos from:,[MLB logos].
-1928 Detroit Tigers home jersey script- logo, illustration from
-1928 NY Giants road cap logo, photo from

April 9, 2020

NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed./+ A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences.

Filed under: Hockey,NCAA, ice hockey — admin @ 8:07 am

NCAA Division I Hockey Tournament: Map of All-time Frozen Four Appearances (40 teams) (1948 to 2019/72 seasons), with Titles listed

By Bill Turianski on 9 April 2020.
Source: List of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team (

The NCAA Division I has 60 ice hockey teams. Those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams are split into 6 Conferences (with 1 current Independent team [Arizona State]). Of those 60 D-1 men’s ice hockey teams, 40 teams have advanced into the the final four of the NCAA Division I Men’s Hockey Tournament (aka the Frozen Four). You can read a timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and all the D-1 hockey conferences, further below.

The map here shows the 40 teams that have made it to a Frozen Four (72 Frozen Fours, from 1947-48 to 2018-19). The other 20 D-1 hockey teams, which have never advanced to a Frozen Four, are also shown on the map, albeit in smaller text-size and without colors or logos. On the map, each of the 40 teams’ Total-Frozen-Four-Appearances are shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total Frozen 4 appearances, the larger the team-colors-circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances +their Division I men’s hockey titles (21 teams have won a D-1 hockey title). Like the team-color-circles, the team’s logo and text are sized, gradually getting larger with more Frozen 4 appearances; plus I bumped up the text 1-point-size if the team has won a D-1 hockey title.

There are two charts at the right side of the map-page.
∙ The smaller chart closer to the map shows the 60-team NCAA D-1 hockey set-up, by the 6 Conferences: with each school’s hockey-venue-location noted, as well as the season the team joined D-1 hockey (or re-joined D-1 hockey). Total D-1 titles by team, and by conference, are also listed.
The chart at the far right-hand side show these things…
∙ School’s team, with the team’s D-1 hockey conference and their primary logo.
∙ Number of Frozen Four Appearances (with last appearance noted).
∙ Number of D-1 men’s hockey Titles (with last title noted).

- {From Wikipedia, here is a map of all 60 D-1 hockey teams, by conference.}

- {From 2016, here is a map of 2015-16 D-1 men’s ice hockey attendance, that I made.} {If you are curious about D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences, go to the right-hand sidebar on my homepage at “NCAA, ice-…”, to see my 2016 posts on the 6 NCAA D-1 men’s ice hockey conferences.}

    A timeline history of the D-1 hockey tournament, the Frozen Four, and D-1 hockey conferences

As mentioned, there are 60 Division I men’s hockey teams. But actually, 20 of those of those teams represent schools which are otherwise Division II or Division III schools. Here are those 20 schools with D-1 hockey teams, but whose athletics teams are otherwise part of D-II or D-III…
∙ 4 of the 11 teams from Atlantic Hockey: AIC, Bentley, Mercyhurst, RIT.
∙ None of the 7 teams from Big Ten Hockey.
∙ 4 of the 12 teams from ECAC Hockey: Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Union College.
∙ None of the 11 teams from Hockey East.
∙ 3 of the 8 teams from the NCHC: Colorado College, Minnesota-Duluth, St. Cloud State.
∙ 9 of the 10 teams from the WCHA [ie, all except Bowling Green]: Alabama-Huntsville, Alaska-Anchorage, Alaska-Fairbanks, Bemidji State, Ferris State, Lake Superior State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota State-Mankato, Northern Michigan.

Of these 20 teams from otherwise D-II or D-II schools, seven have won D-1 hockey titles: Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles incl. 2019), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Michigan Tech (3 titles), Rensselaer (2 titles), Colorado College (2 titles), Union College (one title), Northern Michigan (one title).

The annual NCAA Division I Men’s Ice Hockey Tournament began in 1947-48, when the NCAA selection committee chose four top D-1 hockey teams to compete in a single-elimination tournament. In the tournament’s first 29 years (1948-76), all the four teams that were selected for the tournament already comprised the Frozen Four. The first ten seasons of the tournament (1948-57) were held at Colorado Springs, CO. Since then, the tournament has been hosted by a different city each year. Michigan won the first D-1 tournament, as well as 6 of the first 10 tournaments; Michigan today has won a record 9 titles (though their last title was won 22 years ago in 1998). Since 2000, the most successful teams are: Boston College, with 4 titles in the last 20 tournaments (most recently in 2012), then Denver and Minnesota-Duluth, both of whom have won 3 titles in the last 20 tournaments, with Denver winning it in 2017, and Minnesota-Duluth winning it in 2018 and 2019.

So, from 1948 to 1976 (29 years), the D-1 hockey tournament comprised just 4 teams. Then, from 1977 to 1987, the tournament comprised 5 or 6 teams. In 1981, the D-1 hockey tournament became an 8-team competition. In 1988, the tournament became a 12-team competition. In 1999, the term Frozen Four was first used by the NCAA. In 2003, the present-day 16-team competition was instituted. The current 16-team tournament involves four city-venues for the Regionals (aka the first round) (in late March), and then another city-venue for the Frozen Four (in early April). Last year, the Frozen Four was held in Buffalo, NY, and the Minnesota-Duluth Bulldogs repeated as champions, defeating the Umass Minutemen 3-0. This season [2019-20], the tournament was cancelled on March 12, due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Timeline of D-1 hockey conferences…

Prior to the the first D-1 hockey tournament in 1947-48, there was one “proto-conference”: the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League. It was initially comprised of four Ivy League schools’ hockey teams: Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. The Quadrangular League allowed the four to stabilize schedules and to determine the best team of the 4, each season. Army joined in 1946, and it was re-named the Pentagonal League, a name which remained when Army left after the 1947-48 season. Army were replaced by another Ivy League team in 1948: Brown. The grouping continued on until 1954-55. But the Pentagonal League never had the clout to secure an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament (once the tournament started up in 1947-48). This was exacerbated by the fact that the Ivy League never recognized hockey as a D-1 sport. So the Quadrangular League/Pentagonal League is considered an informal organization and is not recognized as an NCAA conference.

1947-48: Back when the D-1 hockey tournament started in 1947-48, D-1 hockey teams were Independent. There were 27 teams in NCAA D-1 hockey in that first season in which there was a trophy to play for {see this,[1947-48 D-1 hockey/Regular season]}. Of those 27 teams from 1947-48, 20 teams are still in Division I men’s hockey. Those 20 teams are: Army, Boston College, Boston U., Brown, Clarkson, Colgate, Colorado College, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Michigan, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Northeastern, Princeton, St. Lawrence, UMass, Yale.

This Independents-only set-up in D-1 hockey began to gradually change, with the belated creation of D-1 hockey conferences, first in 1950 with the now-defunct Tri-State League, then the following year of 1951 with the creation of what is now known as the WCHA…

1950: the Tri-State League begins play [conference is now defunct]. The first D-1 hockey conference was the Tri-State League (1950-72), a 3-to-6-team conference based in upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and Vermont, which featured small schools like Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Clarkson, Colgate, Williams (of Massachusetts), and Middlebury College (of Vermont). The Tri State League, despite only having a tiny number of teams (just four teams through most of the 1950s), annually received one of the two eastern bids to the NCAA tournament. The Tri-State League was able to place one team into each D-1 hockey tournament from 1952 to 1960. This accounts for the reason why both St. Lawrence and Clarkson have a considerable amount of Frozen Four appearances (9 and 7 appearances). And meanwhile, after 1951-52, the new MWCHL [WCHA], consisting initially of seven western schools (see next paragraph), was able to earn both western bids for the 4-team tournament each year. This situation, from 1950-51 up until 1959-60, left just one eastern bid available for more than two dozen eastern schools! That was unfair enough as it was, but it got worse in the 1960-61 D-1 season, with 25 Independent teams – all from the Northeast – effectively shut out of the post-season competition…because the 2 western bids for the tournament were sewn up by the WCHA, and the two eastern bids for the tournament went to St. Lawrence and Rensellaer, who were, astoundingly, two of only three teams which comprised the tiny but powerful 1960-61 Tri-State League {1961 D-1 tournament}. This made teams from the New England states feel that the Tri-State League was gaming the system. And, in fact, that is exactly why ECAC Hockey was formed later that year of 1961 (you can see more on that, two paragraphs below).

1951: the WCHA begins play. The second D-1 hockey conference was formed the following season of 1951-52: the still-active Midwest Collegiate Hockey League, or MCHL – which is now called the Western Collegiate Hockey Association, or WCHA. (The MCHL changed its name to the WCHA in 1959.) In 1951-52, there were seven teams that initially comprised the new conference: Colorado College, Denver, Michigan, Michigan State, Michigan Tech, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Instantly, the MCHL had enough clout to secure two of the four D-1 hockey tournament bids. That began in the first season of the MCHL [WCHA] in 1951-52, and that situation of the conference owning half the bids to the D-1 hockey tournament lasted 25 seasons, up to 1976. When the tournament expanded to 5 or 6 teams (1977-80 tournaments), the WCHA still owned 2 bids; when the tournament expanded to 8 teams in 1981, the WCHA got 3 bids (while the ECAC got 4 bids and the relatively new conference the CCHA got 1 bid). In that era (the 1980s), the WCHA and ECAC Hockey were unquestionably the two dominant D-1 hockey conferences.

In the past, the WCHA had a whole lot of successful D-1 hockey programs in it, including Michigan, Denver, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan State, Colorado College, and Michigan Tech. Believe it or not, today, those seven teams account for 38 D-1 hockey titles – which is slightly more than half of the 72 D-1 hockey titles! But the profile of the WCHA has diminished considerably. Only one of those seven title-winning teams listed above still remains in the conference, and it is the smallest program of the seven: Michigan Tech, from the isolated Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The WCHA lost all of its big programs during the tumultuous 2010-14 NCAA realignment {see this: NCAA conference realignment/Hockey}. Basically, all the big programs fled from the WCHA, to either the new Big Ten Hockey Conference (Michigan, Michigan State, Minnesota), or to the new NCHC (North Dakota, Denver, Colorado College). Today, the WCHA has, by far, the widest geographic range of D-1 hockey conferences. The 10 teams in the WCHA are spread all the way from Alaska (Alaska-Fairbanks and Alaska-Anchorage) to Alabama (Alabama-Hunstsville) to Minnesota (Bemidji State, Minnesota State at Mankato) to Michigan (all 3 Upper Peninsula D-1 teams [see two sentences below], plus Ferris State) to Ohio (Bowling Green). The conference is frankly too vast to be economically sustainable, and that has influenced the wish of 7 of its 10 members to break off, to re-form a different conference – the CCHA – in 2021-22 (see last paragraph further below). Of the ten teams in the WCHA, four of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan Tech (3 titles), Lake Superior State (3 titles), Northern Michigan, and Bowling Green. That is a total of 8 D-1 hockey titles.

1961: ECAC Hockey begins play. In 1961, the third D-1 hockey conference was formed: the still-active ECAC Hockey. (ECAC stands for Eastern College Athletic Conference.) In 1961-62, ECAC Hockey was formed as a loose association of 28 college hockey teams in the Northeast (New England states plus New York and New Jersey). At the site called College Hockey Historical Archives, it is said…“ECAC Hockey, as it is known today, evolved slowly, starting from a dispute between the New England and New York schools. For the 1961 NCAA Tournament, the selection committee chose St. Lawrence and Rensselaer to represent the East, bypassing the Boston area schools. In the disputes that followed, it was decided to hold an eastern tournament the following season, with the tournament champion given an automatic bid to the NCAA tournament.” {-excerpt from History of ECAC Hockey (} The 3 New York teams that were getting into the tournament via the small Tri-States League all joined ECAC Hockey as founding members (Clarkson, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence), thus making the Tri-States League superfluous. In ECAC Hockey’s 4th season of 1964-65, the then-29-team ECAC Hockey split into Division I and Division II set-ups, with the creation of ECAC-2 (which is now defunct).

Throughout the 1961-62 to 1975-76 time period (15 seasons), ECAC Hockey and the WCHA were the only two conferences that got bids for the D-1 hockey tournament. That changed when the CCHA finally got an automatic bid in 1976-77 (see 2 paragraphs below). In the 1980-81 to 1983-84 time period, ECAC Hockey was at its most powerful, with control of 4 of the 8 bids to the tournament. But that changed when 5 ECAC Hockey teams left to form Hockey East in 1985 (see 3 paragraphs below).

The ECAC was the only D-1 hockey conference that was unchanged by the 2010-14 realignment. Today, the 12-team ECAC Hockey is a rather unusual college conference, as it includes within it all six of the D-1 Ivy League hockey teams (Brown, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Yale [Penn and Columbia do not field D-1 hockey teams]). ECAC Hockey has teams spread through 6 states in the Northeast and in New England. Six teams are from New York: Clarkson (Potsdam, NY), Colgate (Hamilton, NY), Cornell (Ithaca, NY), Rensselaer (Troy, NY), St. Lawrence (Canton, NY), Union College (Schenectady, NY). Two teams are from Connecticut: Quinnipiac (Hamden, Greater New Haven, CT) and Yale (New Haven, NY). One team is from Massachusetts: Harvard (Cambridge, MA). One team is from Rhode Island: Brown (Providence, RI). One team is from New Hampshire: Dartmouth (Hanover, NH). And one team is from New Jersey: Princeton (Princeton, NJ). Of the 12 teams in ECAC Hockey, five of them have won D-1 hockey titles: Cornell (2 titles), Rensellaer (2 titles), Harvard, Union College, Yale. That is a total of 7 D-1 hockey titles.

1971: the CCHA begins play [the conference is now defunct, but set to be revived in 2021]. The CCHA had less than half-a-dozen members for its first few seasons, including Bowling Green, Ohio State, Lake Superior State, and Western Michigan. The CCHA was initially full of small programs, and did not get an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament until its sixth season, in 1976-77. The teams in the old CCHA were primarily from Michigan and Ohio. In 1981, the CCHA got much more respectable, with the addition of 3 title-winning programs from the state of Michigan: Michigan, Michigan State, and Michigan Tech. But 3 decades later, the D-1 conference realignment of 2010-14 decimated the CCHA. The CCHA disbanded after the 2012-13 season. However, plans are now set to revive the CCHA in 2021 {see last paragraph, further below}.

1984: Hockey East begins play. Hockey East was formed in 1984-85, by five former ECAC teams: Boston College, Boston University, New Hampshire, Northeastern, and Providence. These 5 decided to create their own league, because of scheduling concerns (they feared that the Ivy League teams in the ECAC would form their own conference, but that never came about). It also cannot be denied that the Hockey East set-up has decreased travel costs among its member-teams (seeing as it is a New-England-only-based conference). The 11-team Hockey East conference has teams spread throughout all of the 6 New England states, including 5 teams from Greater Boston. Hockey East teams are: Boston College, Boston University, and Northeastern from Boston, MA; and two more teams from the Greater Boston region: Merrimack (North Andover, MA) and UMass-Lowell (Lowell, MA); UMass (Amherst, MA), Maine (Orono, ME), New Hampshire (Durham, NH), Providence (Providence, RI), UConn (located in Storrs, CT but the hockey team plays 25 miles west in Hartford, CT), and Vermont (Burlington, VT). D-1 hockey title-winning teams from Hockey East are: Boston College (5 titles), Boston University (5 titles), Maine (2 titles), Providence. That is a total of 13 D-1 hockey titles.

1998: Atlantic Hockey begins play (as the MAAC). The 1998-99 season saw the creation of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC). In June 2003, MAAC Hockey broke off from the rest of the MAAC, and reorganized as Atlantic Hockey. In 2004, the Atlantic Hockey conference was granted an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. Atlantic Hockey is comprised of small D-1 programs, 10 of 11 of which are in the Northeast (except for Air Force Academy, who play in Colorado Springs, CO). Here are the 11 teams in the Atlantic League: Air Force; American International College [AIC] (Springfield, MA); Army (West Point, NY); Bentley (Waltham, MA); Canisius (Buffalo, NY); Holy Cross (Worcester, MA); Mercyhurst (Erie, PA); Niagara (Lewiston, NY); Robert Morris (Moon Township, Greater Pittsburgh, PA), Rochester Institute of Technology [RIT] (Henrietta, Greater Rochester, NY), Sacred Heart (located in Fairfield, CT but the hockey team plays 6 miles east in Bridgeport, CT). None of the eleven teams in Atlantic Hockey have won the D-1 hockey title. In fact, in the 16 seasons that Atlantic Hockey has had an automatic bid into the D-1 hockey tournament, only one team in the Atlantic Hockey conference has ever advanced to the Frozen Four…that was RIT, in 2010.

March 2011: the creation of the Big Ten Hockey Conference is announced. The Big Ten Hockey Conference would begin play two-and-a-half years later in 2013-14. That announcement started up the whole, sordid conference realignment in D-1 hockey. The roots of this was the inclusion of Penn State as a D1-hockey team (Penn State debuted as an Independent in D-1 hockey in 2012-13). The shakeup in D-1 hockey conferences occurred in much the same way (and in nearly the same time-period) as the recent realignments in NCAA D-1 football and in NCAA D-1 basketball. After the dust had settled in D-1 hockey, there were 6 conferences instead of 5, and one conference was dissolved – the Central Collegiate Hockey Associaition [CCHA](/see 3 paragraphs above; also see 2 paragraphs below). The Big Ten D-1 Hockey Conference was instituted in the 2013–14 season, combining Penn State with Michigan State, Michigan, and Ohio State from the defunct CCHA, plus Minnesota and Wisconsin from the severely-weakened WCHA. That formed a six-member Big Ten Hockey Conference. Four seasons later, Notre Dame joined Big Ten hockey in 2017-18, to make it a 7-team conference. Here are the locations of the 7 teams in Big Ten Hockey: Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI); Michigan State (East Lansing, MI); Minnesota (Minneapolis, MN); Notre Dame (Notre Dame, Greater West Bend, IN); Ohio State (Columbus, OH); Penn State (State College, PA); Wisconsin (Madison, WI). Four of the seven teams in the Big Ten Hockey Conference have won D-1 hockey titles: Michigan (with a record 9 titles), Wisconsin (6 titles), Minnesota (5 titles), Michigan State (3 titles). That is a total of 23 D-1 hockey titles, which is the most of any D-1 hockey conference, despite its small membership-size.

July 2011: the creation of the NCHC is announced. The NCHC was formed as a reaction to the establishment of the Big Ten Hockey Conference. Basically, the 8 future NCHC teams fled two conferences (the WCHA and the CCHA) which had a majority of small-program-teams. Those 8 teams did this in order to consolidate in a conference with other medium- or large-sized D-1 hockey programs. This, in order to not be overshadowed by the new 800-pound gorilla in the room, the Big Ten Hockey Conference. So four months after Big Ten Hockey was announced, 6 schools from the the WCHA announced their intention of leaving the WCHA, to form a new D-1 hockey conference, to be called the National Collegiate Hockey Conference, or NCHC. Those schools were Colorado College (Colorado Springs, CO); Denver (Denver, CO); Miami (of Ohio) (Oxford, OH); Minnesota-Duluth (Duluth, MN); North [Dakota (Grand Forks, ND); and Omaha (Omaha, NE). A few months later, those six were joined by two more: St. Cloud State (St. Cloud, MN) [also formerly of the WCHA]; and Western Michigan (Kalamazoo, MI) [who would be leaving the soon-to-be-defunct CCHA]. The 8-team NCHC has four teams that have won D-1 hockey titles: North Dakota (with 8 titles), Denver (also with 8 titles), Minnesota-Duluth (3 titles including 2019), Colorado College (2 titles). That is a total of 21 D-1 hockey titles [2nd-most].

February 2020: the revival of the CCHA is announced. (The CCHA originally existed as a D1-hockey conference from 1971 to 2013.) The CCHA will be re-formed, starting in 2021-22. Seven schools, which comprise 70% of the WCHA, announced their intention to start a new D-1 hockey conference, adopting the name of the old CCHA. The 7 teams: Bowling Green (Bowling Green, Greater Toledo, OH); Ferris State (Big Rapids, MI); Lake Superior State (Sault Ste. Marie, Upper Peninsula, MI); and Northern Michigan (Marquette, Upper Peninsula, MI) (all of whom were previously members of the old CCHA when it disbanded in 2013); Michigan Tech (Houghton, Upper Peninsula, MI) (who were in the original CCHA three seasons, from 1981-84), plus Bemidji State (Bemidji, MN) and Minnesota State (Mankato, MN). Now, in their announcement of the conference-shift, there is only talk of “improving geographical alignment” {see this, from}. But what it all really boils down to is this…because of travel costs, those 7 Upper Midwest teams want to break away from three remote teams: the two D-1 hockey teams from Alaska (Alaska-Anchorage and Alaska-Fairbanks), and the D-1 team from northern Alabama (Alabama-Huntsville). As Adam Wodon said at College Hockey…“the three “leftovers” here: Alaska, Alaska-Anchorage and Alabama-Huntsville. I think there’s a pretty clear consensus that everyone feels badly for those programs, and no one wants D-1 to lose teams, but that the other seven schools had to do what they had to do. The path of least resistance for shedding those three schools, was to leave and form a new conference. It was far easier than just kicking them out of the existing WCHA. So now those three will be left on their own, basically nomads. The WCHA could exist in name only, but it wouldn’t matter. With only three teams it wouldn’t get an automatic NCAA bid. Those programs are in trouble, let’s face it.”…{-excerpt from Forget the Name, New-CCHA Will Grapple With Bigger Issues, on Feb. 19 2020, at}
Thanks to all at the following links…
-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (
-Thanks to contributors at of NCAA Division I Men’s Frozen Four appearances by team; of NCAA Division I men’s ice hockey champions.

March 20, 2020

NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most Tournament Appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams) (81 seasons: 1939 to 2019).

Filed under: NCAA Men's Basketball — admin @ 2:11 pm

NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament: Map of All-time most tournament appearances – all teams with 10 or more March Madness appearances (119 teams/81 seasons [1939 to 2019])

By Bill Turianski on 20 March 2020;

Source: NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school (

With the cancellation of the 2020 NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament, I had some extra space to fill. So I decided to make a map I had wanted to make for years.

The map shows all teams (119 teams) which have qualified for the NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament at least 10 times. On the map, each team’s Total-Appearances is shown in graphic form by a team-colors-circle that radiates out from the team’s location. (Three teams – St. John’s, UConn, and Villanova – have both their venue-locations shown on the map.) The team-colors-circles are sized, with the larger the total appearances, the larger the circle. Alongside each team’s team-color-circle/location-dot/logo is their number of appearances. The team-color-circles are almost all centered on each team’s location-dot…unless I could not fit it in, due to geography and “team congestion”. That happened on the East Coast (in the NYC-metro area, and particularly in Philadelphia, but also in Massachusetts/RI, in DC/Maryland, and with respect to North Carolina/Duke). It also happened on the SF-Bay & LA parts of the California coast, up in the Seattle area, and in the southwest-Ohio/Cincinnati region.

I had to cut it off at 10 appearances. I would have kept going, but it was becoming too hard to fit in teams, and still make the map readable.

At the far-left-hand side of the map-page, I made a long chart, which shows 5 things…
A) Each team’s Tournament Appearances Rank.
B) Name of school and its primary logo (or wordmark) for their Athletics teams.
C) Tournament Appearances (with last appearance noted).
D) Final Four Appearances (with last Final Four noted).
E)  Titles (with last title noted).

The map encompasses all 81 seasons of the tournament (1939-2019). The map is based on a list at Wikipedia {NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament bids by school}. I deviated from the list in just one way…Teams which qualified for the 2020 tournament, before the tournament was cancelled on Friday the 13th of March, do not have those 2020 bids count toward their total appearances-tally. I did that because it wouldn’t be fair to all the teams from the bigger conferences that never got to play in their tournaments, or all the teams that would have been selected as at-large bids on selection-Sunday.
-Thanks to AMK1211 for blank map of USA, ‘File:Blank US Map with borders.svg”>File:Blank US Map with borders.svg‘ (
-Thanks to the contributors to the pages at, 2020 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament.

March 3, 2020

2020 Copa Libertadores: location-map for the 32-team Group Stage, with Club Histories (Libertadores appearances & titles listed); plus 2 charts: Libertadores titles by club & by country.

Filed under: Copa Libertadores — admin @ 9:30 am

2020 Copa Libertadores: location-map for the 32-team Group Stage

By Bill Turianski on 3 March 2020;

-2020 Copa Libertadores/Group Stage (
-Summary – CONMEBOL Libertadores [2020] (

-Camisetas de la Copa Libertadores 2020 (2020 Libertadores Jerseys/all 32 teams) (

-Experts Preview CONMEBOL Libertadores Group Stage: Profiles of all 32 teams taking part in the 2020 Libertadores Group Stage (

The Group Stage (of 32) begins on 3-5 March (1st game-week). The Group Stage lasts 2 months, and has 6 game-weeks, with the final game-week played on 5-7 May.
{2019 Copa Libertadores schedule.}

Qualified teams for the Group Stage, by country: Brazil has 7 teams (6+ Copa Libertadores holder). Argentina has 5 teams. Ecuador has 4 teams (3+ Copa Sudamericana holder). Colombia and Paraguay have 3 teams each. The five other countries all have 2 teams each (Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela).

The map…
Teams are shown in the two flanking sections on either side of the map, organized by country. Shown there in the country-groupings are each team’s all-time total Libertadores appearances (in the tan-colored column), and Libertadores titles (in the pale-blue-colored column).

Teams which had to play in the 3 Preliminary Stages [19 teams] are shown in italics (lowest-ranked qualifiers). From these 19 teams, only 4 qualified for the Group Stage of 32: Barcelona SC (Ecuador), Guaraní (Paraguay), Independiente Medellín (Colombia), Internacional (Brazil).

At the far left of the map-page is the Libertadores titles list by club (25 clubs have won the Libertadores title). At the far right is the Libertadores titles list by country (of the 59 Libertadores titles, 25 have been won by Argentine teams, and 19 have been won by Brazilian teams).
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Globe-map of South America by Luan at File:South America (orthographic projection).svg ([South America]).
-Blank map of South America by Anbans 585 at File:CONMEBOL laea location map without rivers.svg ([2018 Copa Libertadores]).
-2020 Copa Libertadores (
-Copa Libertadores 1960-2019 Club Histories (
-Libertadores titles list {}.

Thanks to James Nalton at World Football for tweets & re-tweets {WFi}.

February 26, 2020

2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round Proper: map with attendances & fixture list.

Filed under: >2019-20 FA Cup — admin @ 8:22 am

2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round Proper: map with attendances & fixture list.

By Bill Turianski on 26 Febuary 2020;
-The competition…FA Cup .
-2019-20 FA Cup/5th Round (

Question: Why are this season’s FA Cup 5th round matches being played in midweek?

Answer: Because of the clout that the Premier League has…specifically the biggest Premier League clubs. Last season, 4 Premier League clubs reached the Champions League knockout stages, and 2 Premier League clubs reached the Europa League knockout stages. (Those 6 clubs were Liverpool, Man City, Man Utd, and Spurs in the 18/19 UEFA CL knockout stage; and Arsenal and Chelsea in the 18/19 UEFA EL knockout stage.) So the issue of fixture congestion was raised.

The Premier League pushed for changes, and the FA has complied. Not only will all eight of the 5th Round matches this season be played in the midweek, but all matches from the 5th Round on will not feature replays…a match ending in a draw will head to extra time and, if necessary, penalties, to decide the winner.

The one mitigating factor I can see with the scrapping of replays at this late a point in the competition, is this… the smaller and lower-placed clubs – those that would benefit most (financially) from relatively lucrative replays – will have mostly been eliminated. As is the case this season (with the lowest-placed club still alive being 3rd-division-side Portsmouth, who are currently averaging a healthy 17.8 K per game).

But, not last season (2018-19), when small 4th-division-side Newport County and small 3rd-division-side AFC Wimbledon were both still alive in the 5th Round. And not two seasons ago (2017-18), when small 3rd-division-side Rochdale were still alive in the 5th Round…and in February of 2018 Rochdale drew 2-2 with Tottenham (at Spotland), which led to a 5th Round replay resulting in a 6-1 defeat of Rochdale by Spurs, in front of 24,600 ticket-paying fans at Wembley in London. So, about half of the substantial gate receipts from that replay went to a cash-poor Rochdale, a club that draws only around 3.5 K, and who have been punching above their weight in the 3rd division for a number of years now. That is what is being scrapped, by scrapping 5th Round replays.

The 2019-20 FA Cup 5th Round fixtures, which feature ten Premier League teams (1), five EFL Championship teams (2), and one EFL League One team (3)…
Monday the 2nd of March:
•Arsenal (1) v Portsmouth (3).
Tuesday the 3rd of March:
•Chelsea (1) v Liverpool (1);
•Reading (2) v Sheffield United (1);
•West Bromwich Albion (2) v Newcastle United (1).
Wednesday the 4th of March:
•Sheffield Wednesday (2) v Manchester City (1);
•Leicester City (1) v Birmingham City (2);
•Tottenham Hotspur (1) v Norwich City (1).
Thursday the 5th of March:
•Derby County (2) v Manchester United (1).
Thanks to all at the links below…
-Blank map of UK historic counties, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:United Kingdom police areas map.svg (
-Blank relief map of Greater London, by Nilfanion (using UK Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater London UK relief location map.jpg.
-Blank relief map of Greater Manchester, by Nilfanion (using Ordnance Survey data), at File:Greater Manchester UK relief location map.jpg.
-Blank relief map of West Midlands, by Nilfanion, at File:West Midlands UK relief location map.jpg -List of Greater Manchester settlements by population.
-Attendances from

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